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Treatment of Child Abuse

Common Ground for Mental Health, Medical, and Legal Practitioners

edited by Robert M. Reece, M.D., Rochelle F. Hanson, Ph.D., and John Sargent, M.D. foreword by Walter F. Mondale

Publication Year: 2014

Acclaimed as a milestone resource by the Journal of Child and Family Studies, Treatment of Child Abuse has been updated and expanded with ten completely new chapters. The second edition adds the expertise of co-editors Rochelle F. Hanson, Ph.D., and John Sargent, M.D., along with chapters from many new contributors. The second edition is organized by various modes of therapy, different settings for therapies, and the individualized needs of victims correlating to types of abuse and neglect. The contributors describe evidence-based and evidence-supported treatments for traumatized children and adolescents, information on research and theory underlying the interventions, and explanations of treatment protocols. The contributors focus particular attention on special populations and cultural differences. Entire sections focus on medical care and legal interventions necessary for abused youth. New and expanded material includes information on • Bullying • Sanctuary Model of trauma-informed care • Long-term medical management • Appropriate use of psychopharmacology • Importance of self-care for professionals Treatment of Child Abuse is an important resource for mental health professionals, family physicians, pediatricians, emergency department physicians, physician assistants, and nurses, as well as child advocate professionals, social workers, and lawyers.

Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press

Title Page, Copyright Page

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

Contributors

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pp. vii-xii

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Foreword

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pp. xiii-xiv

In the early 1970s, I was deeply saddened by numerous media reports on child abuse and neglect in the United States. As I did more research, gathering information from frontline care providers and legal systems, I learned...

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Preface

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pp. xv-xvi

Despite increased awareness and a decline in reported rates (Finkelhor & Jones, 2012; Finkelhor et al., 2010), child abuse and neglect remain a major public health problem in the United States in the twenty- first century. Nearly one million allegations of abuse and neglect are...

Part I: Initial Contact with the Abused Child

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1. Identification, Mandated Reporting Requirements, and Referral for Mental Health Evaluation and Treatment

Jordan Greenbaum, M.D. and Marianne Celano, Ph.D.

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pp. 3-11

A medical provider may encounter a child victim of abuse or neglect under a variety of circumstances, whether routine pediatric visits with the primary care physician or nurse practitioner, or acute care in the emergency department or surgical...

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2. Psychosocial Assessment in Child Maltreatment

Jeffrey N. Wherry, Ph.D, ABPP, Arnestine C. Briggs-King, PhD, and Rochelle F. Hanson, PhD

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pp. 12-28

Disclaimer #1. Beware! The following terms are confusing: Psychosocial assessment, biopsychosocial assessment, clinical intake, clinical interview, screening, mental status exam, psychological evaluation, psychiatric evaluation— these terms probably carry different meanings...

Part II: Evidence-Based Treatments

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3. Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Elisabeth Pollio Ph.D, Melissa Mclean, LPC, Leah E. Behl, Ph.D, Esther Deblinger, Ph.D

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pp. 31-38

This chapter focuses on Trauma- Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF- CBT), an evidence- based treatment designed to address the diffi culties experienced by children, adolescents, and their caregivers in the aftermath of traumatic...

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4. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in Child Welfare Settings

Christoher Campbell, Ph.D., Mark Chaffin, Ph.D., Beverly W. Funderburk, Ph.D.

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pp. 39-49

Parent training programs are the most common type of service prescribed for parents in the child welfare system. Parent- Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) is an evidence- based model originally developed as a parent-mediated...

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5. SafeCare: A Prevention and Intervention Program for Child Neglect and Physical Abuse

Shannon Self- Brown, Ph.D. Erin Mcfry, M.P.H. Angela Montesanti, M.P.H. Anna Edwards- Gaura, Ph.D. John Lutzker, Ph.D. Jenelle Shanley, Ph.D. Daniel Whitaker, Ph.D.

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pp. 50-58

In 2010, child protective services in the United States responded to approximately 3.6 million reports of child maltreatment, and 754,000 of those reports were substantiated as official child protection cases (U.S. Department of Health...

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6. Evidence-Based Practices for Working with Physically Abusive Families: Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

David J. Kolko, Ph.D., Abpp Monica M. Fitzgerald, Ph.D. Jessica L. Laubach, B.S.

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pp. 59-66

This chapter provides an overview of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (AF- CBT), giving insights into the general nature of AF- CBT, its theoretical framework, target population, expected outcomes, empirical...

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7. Empowering Families: Combined Parent-Child Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Families at Risk for Child Physical Abuse

Melissa K. Runyon, Ph.D. Colette Mclean, Lcsw

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pp. 67-75

In 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Administration for Children and Families reported that in 2010, approximately 695,000 children in the United States were victims of maltreatment. More than 17% of these...

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8. Early Intervention for Abused Children in the School Setting

Lisa H. Jaycox, Ph.D. Audra K. Langley, Ph.D. Bradley D. Stein, M.D., Ph.D. Sheryl H. Kataoka- Endo, M.D., M.S.H.S Marleen Wong, Ph.D.

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pp. 76-85

From the perspective of a clinic- based practitioner or child/ family ser vices worker, it may seem counterintuitive to intervene in the school setting for children who have been abused. Don’t child welfare systems need to get involved to...

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9. Family Foster Care for Abused and Neglected Children

Sigrid James, Ph.D, LCSW

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pp. 86-95

Foster care has a long tradition in the provision of care and services to maltreated and abandoned children (Kadushin & Martin, 1988). In the United States, foster care is often used as an umbrella term capturing all types of publicly provided child welfare placements, including family foster...

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10. Kinship Care

Susan J. Kelley, Rn, Ph.D., Faan Deborah M. Whitley, M.P.H., Ph.D.

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pp. 96-106

In 2011, approximately 2.9 million children in the United States were living under the care of someone other than a biological parent (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011). Comprising nearly 4% of the nation’s 0- to 17- year- old population, these children live in a variety of caregiving arrangements, including...

Part III: Special Populations and Special Topics

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11. The Sanctuary Model: Rebooting the Organizational Operating System in Group Care Settings

Sandra L. Bloom, M.D.

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pp. 109-117

The children who arrive for placement in a residential program or group home are there because each one has problems that are exceedingly complex, that cannot be managed in a less restrictive level of care, and that pose significant...

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12. Cultural Considerations for Assessment and Treatment in Child Maltreatment Cases

Tatiana Davidson, Ph.D. Michael De Arellano, Ph.D.

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pp. 118-131

The prevalence of child maltreatment is high throughout the United States: in 2011, an estimated 3.4 million referrals involving child maltreatment were received by child protective ser vices (U.S. Department of Health and Human Ser vices, 2012). There is also evidence...

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13. Trauma Systems Therapy: An Approach to Creating Trauma-Informed Child Welfare Systems

Adam Brown, Psy.D. Carryl P. Navalta, Ph.D. Erika Tullberg, M.P.A., M.P.H. Glenn Saxe, M.D.

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pp. 132-138

This chapter focuses on the most common context in which youths exposed to abuse and neglect come into contact with child- serving professionals: the child welfare system. Children and families involved with the child welfare system have, by...

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14. The Abused Student Cornered: School Bullying amidst Trauma

Mona Patel Potter, M.D. Soonjo Hwang, M.D. Jeff Q. Bostic, M.D., Ed.D.

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pp. 139-147

Childhood victimization, including school bullying, has been shown to alter development in the psychological, emotional, cognitive, social, and behavioral realms (Ando, Asakura, & Simons- Morton, 2005; Herman, 1997). Just as there are many...

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15. Cognitive Processing Therapy with Adolescents

Kathleen M. Chard, Ph.D. Rich Gilman, Ph.D.

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pp. 148-153

Data from a multitude of sources indicate that a significant number of children will be exposed to a traumatic event, including abuse, car accidents, or natural disasters, to name just a few. For example, Finkelhor and colleagues (2009) found that more...

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16. Risk Reduction through Family Therapy

Carla Kmett Danielson, Ph. D.

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pp. 154-167

Susanna was 17 years old when she presented for therapy, two years after the last occasion on which an adult member of her extended family had sexually and physically abused her (abuse occurring over a several- year period). She rarely...

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17. Children and Adolescents with Sexual Behavior Problems

Amanda M. Fanniff, Ph.D. Judith V. Becker, Ph.D. Amy L. Gambow, M.S.

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pp. 168-178

Children and adolescents with sexual behavior problems (SBP) have become a major focus of researchers and policymakers only in relatively recent years. Attention to juveniles with SBP increased in the 1980s and 1990s subsequent...

Part IV: Short- and Long-Term Medical Treatment

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18. Medical Management of Sexual Abuse: A Therapeutic Approach

Martin A. Finkel, D.O.,FAAP

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pp. 181-189

This chapter focuses on the role of the medical examination of the sexually abused child and how the evaluation can be conducted to be of therapeutic value to the child and family, as well as to serve the system’s need to ensure the...

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19. Treatment of Physical Child Abuse

Robert M. Reece, M.D. Ronald C. Savage, Ed.D. Naomi Sugar, M.D.

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pp. 190-207

The medical literature on the treatment of physical child abuse beyond the acute phase of injury is sparse. This derives from fragmentation of the medical care of these children: one set of physicians sees the child in the emergency...

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20. Intervening with Families When Children Neglected

Diane Depanfilis, Ph. D., M.S.W.

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pp. 208-219

Child neglect is the most common and the least understood form of child maltreatment. The purpose of this chapter is to synthesize what we know about promising approaches to help families meet the...

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21. Failure to Thrive and Maltreatment

Hans B. Kersten, M.D. David S. Bennett, Ph.D.

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pp. 220-232

Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to faltering weight, typically in early childhood. It is a common problem seen by pediatricians today and has been a concern for physicians for more than a hundred years. FTT occurs when there is a...

Part V: Education, Training, Dissemination, and Implementation in Communities

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22. Innovative Methods for Implementing Evidence-Supported Interventions for Mental Health Treatment of Child and Adolescent Victims of Violence

Benjamin E. Saunders, Ph.D. Rochelle F. Hanson, Ph.D.

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pp. 235-245

A large body of research has found that violence is pervasive in the lives of American children and adolescents and is associated with the development of serious mental health disorders and problems. The 2009 National Survey of Children’s...

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23. Statewide Efforts for Implementation of Evidence-Based Programs

Jason M. Lang, Ph.D. Lucy Berliner, M.S.W. Monica M. Fitzgerald, Ph.D. Robert P. Franks, Ph.D.

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pp. 246-254

A number of evidence- based programs (EBPs) have been developed to treat children who are victims of abuse, neglect, and other forms of trauma exposure. The availability of these programs in community- based mental health settings...

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24. Creating a Culture of Wellness for Providers in Harm’s Way

Leslie Anne Ross, Psy.D.

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pp. 255-261

Providers who work with children, families, and adults who have been exposed to trauma consistently report experiences of work- related distress. Regardless of providers’ age, profession, training, or years on the job, exposure to a client’s or patient’s trauma has a profound, unique impact...

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25. The Importance of Therapist and Family Engagement in Treatment Implementation

Marcela M. Torres, Ph.D. Monica M. Fitzgerald, Ph.D. Kimberly L. Shipman, Ph.D.

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pp. 262-271

As noted throughout this book, there are several evidence-supported and innovative approaches for treating children and families who have experienced abuse and other types of traumatic events. Unfortunately, these evidence- supported...

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26. The Roles of Web-Based Technology in the Dissemination and Implementation of Evidence-Based Treatments for Child Abuse

Nicholas C. Heck, Ph.D. Daniel W. Smith, Ph.D.

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pp. 272-278

When the Internet was launched in 1989, an estimated 28% of American adults used a computer at home, work, or school (U.S. Census Bureau, 1991). Between the years 2000 and 2010, the percentage of American adults using computers...

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27. Education of Emergency Department Physicians

Robert D. Sege, M.D., Ph.D. Genevieve Preer, M.D. Kimberly A. Schwartz, M.D., Faap

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pp. 279-283

Emergency medicine physicians are at the frontline of caring for children with abusive injuries. This chapter focuses on the essential educational content that emergency medicine physicians require to identify...

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28. Education of Physicians in Residency Training

Kathi Makoroff, M.D., M.Ed.

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pp. 284-290

Child abuse (maltreatment) is an enormous public health issue, with significant morbidity and mortality. Residents in training frequently see children with suspected child abuse and neglect, and no matter what field of practice the...

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29. Education of Community Physicians

Amanda K. Fingarson, D.O. Emalee G. Flaherty, M.D. Robert D. Sege, M.D., Ph.D.

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pp. 291-295

Virtually all American children receive primary care medical services. Community physicians, through their trusted ongoing relationships with children and their caregivers, can detect changes in children’s health and well- being and...

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30. Child Abuse Pediatricians: Treating Child Victims Maltreatment

Brett Slingsby, M.D. Christine Barron, M.D.

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pp. 296-302

Whenever there is concern about any form of child maltreatment, the child would benefit from an appropriate medical evaluation. Over the past few years, a new subspecialty has emerged of physicians who are experienced and...

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31. Training Child Psychiatry Fellows to Provide Trauma-Informed Care

Sigalit Hoffman, M.D. John Sargent, M.D.

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pp. 303-310

The goals of training child psychiatrists include familiarizing them with the manifestations of trauma, developing their understanding of the impact of trauma on children at various developmental stages, and making them aware of

Part VI: New Directions

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32. Psychopharmacology

Shannon W. Simmons, M.D., M.P.H. Michael W. Naylor, M.D.

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pp. 313-322

Childhood abuse and neglect are associated with a range of emotional and behavioral disturbances. In some cases, pharmacotherapy to treat posttraumatic psychiatric symptoms is a significant element of the treatment plan. This chapter describes...

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33. Treatment Implications of Gene-Environment Interplay in Childhood Trauma

Ananda B. Amstadter, Ph.D. Erin C. Dunn, Sc.D., M.P.H. Ruth C. Brown, Ph.D. Erin C. Berenz, Ph.D. Nicole R. Nugent, Ph.D.

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pp. 323-346

Many fields have had a longstanding interest in questions regarding “nurture” and “nature” as they relate to the development and maintenance of psychopathology. Ample evidence suggests that exposure to traumatic events during...

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34. Resilience and Posttraumatic Growth in Abused Neglected Children

Michael Ungar, Pd.D.

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pp. 347-354

Maltreated children experience resilience when provided with the resources they need to cope effectively. Though individual factors associated with resilience are most often studied, the ease with which a child’s environment facilitates...

Part VII: Legal Issues

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35. Legal Issues Related to Child Maltreatment Its Therapy

Donald C. Bross, Ph.D., J.D.

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pp. 357-364

The topics of this chapter are the reporting and treatment of child abuse, information related to court reports and testimony, the contrast between civil and criminal proceedings, and a few of the special legal topics of child maltreatment...

Index

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pp. 365-375


E-ISBN-13: 9781421412740
E-ISBN-10: 1421412748
Print-ISBN-13: 9781421412733
Print-ISBN-10: 142141273X

Page Count: 416
Illustrations: 10 line drawings
Publication Year: 2014

Edition: second edition