Violence after War
Explaining Instability in Post-Conflict States
Publication Year: 2014
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
Title Page, Copyright Page
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This book has been a long time in the making. It was developed out of my doctoral dissertation, “The Prevention and Management of Reprisal Violence in Post-Conflict States,” at the Centre for International Studies at the University of Cambridge (2005). That dissertation was written in response to an internship that I completed in summer...
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1. The Challenge of Violence in Post-Conflict States
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All wars end, but they rarely end as predicted. The history of warfare is littered with accounts of leaders who have exhibited false optimism about how easy it will be to defeat an enemy in battle.1 Wars expected to go on for years sometimes end in short order, while others expected to be quick fights descend into slow wars of attrition...
Part One: Unpacking Violence After Wars
2. Understanding Violence after Wars: Concepts and Contexts
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To understand why violence occurs after wars, one must begin by unpacking the concept of violence. As noted in chapter 1, violence in post-conflict states is driven by a diverse range of motives, from the highly personal (such as revenge killings) to the criminal and political. Some violent acts are driven by more than one purpose...
3. Explaining Violence after Wars: Patterns and Pathways
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As presented in chapter 1, strategic violence in post-conflict states can follow two broad patterns. In some post-conflict states, the combatants will continue to use strategic violence for reasons directly related to the war itself—as an attempt to spoil the peace settlement, to undermine its effective terms, or to achieve further gains from renewed...
Part Two: Face Case Studies of Post-Conflict Violence
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The civil war in Bosnia-Herzegovina (1991–1995) was famously described by U.S. secretary of state Warren Christopher as “the problem from hell” because of its complexity and apparent intractability.1 The war was not a symmetrical civil war between two evenly matched sides, but rather a multisided conflict fought by combinations...
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The genocide in Rwanda from April to June 1994 is one of the most horrifying events of the late twentieth century. Over a period of one hundred days, approximately 800,000 people were killed by the Hutu ultranationalist regime, which seized power after President Juvenal Habyarimana was killed in a plane crash on 6 April 1994.1 The...
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Seen in retrospect, NATO’s war in Kosovo (24 March–11 June 1999) was the high-water mark of the series of humanitarian interventions that dominated debates over foreign policy during the 1990s.1 Reacting in part to their legacy of inaction over Bosnia, the United States, United Kingdom, France, and other members of the NATO...
7. East Timor
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One of the most vicious and long-running wars of independence during the twentieth century was waged by the people of East Timor. This small island nation, with a population of about 1 million people, was invaded and occupied by Indonesia in December 1975, just as it appeared to gain its independence from its European colonial...
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The U.S. invasion of Iraq in March 2003 stands as one of the most controversial foreign policy decisions of the past decade. The official rationale of the Bush administration was that the overthrow the regime of Saddam Hussein was necessary so Iraq could not pass along nuclear, chemical, or biological materials to terrorist organizations...
Part Three: Producing Peace After Wars
9. Controlling Violence: Implications and Policy Recommendations
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All wars may end, but the end of a war rarely means the end of violence in a pos-tconflict state. On the contrary, these states are rife with violent acts of various form and purposes, and the peace that is produced by the settlement of the conflict is often fragile.1 As chapter 2 discussed, post-conflict states feature some mix of expressive...
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Page Count: 448
Illustrations: 8 b&w illus.
Publication Year: 2014