Freshwater Fishes of North America
Volume 1: Petromyzontidae to Catostomidae
Publication Year: 2014
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
Title Page, Copyright Page
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List of Contributors
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The North American freshwater fi sh fauna comprises a little more than 1,200 native species in 50 families. It is the most thoroughly studied and largest temperate fi sh fauna (Page & Burr 2011) in the world. In comparison, an analysis and compendium of Eu ro pe an freshwater fi shes included 546 native species in about 24 families (Kottelat & Freyhof 2007); Eu rope is about one- third the land area...
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Chapter 1 Evolution and Ecology of North American Freshwater Fish Assemblages
Stephen T. Ross and William J. Matthews
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Fish assemblages in North America comprise a rich array of species with attendant diversity in morphology, physiology, behavior, ecol ogy, life history, and range of habitats. We suspect that, among the world’s largest continental fi sh assemblages, the North American assemblage has the distinction of being the most thoroughly studied. Even so, much remains to be learned at even the most basic levels....
Chapter 2 Mating Behavior of North American Freshwater Fishes
Deborah A. McLennan
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Behavior mediates four major components of evolution: what you eat (including how not to be eaten), where you live, with whom you mate, and what you do with the off spring resulting from those matings. In this chapter, I focus my attention on one of these components, sex. Breder & Rosen (1966) needed 675 pages to describe the known reproductive behaviors of fishes at that time. Our...
Chapter 3 Petromyzontidae: Lampreys
Ian C. Potter, Howard S. Gill, and Claude B. Renaud
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Lampreys (Petromyzontiformes) and Hagfi shes (Myxiniformes), which are both scaleless and eel- like in body form (Fig. 3.1), are the sole surviving representatives of the agnathan ( jawless) stage in chordate evolution (Hardisty 1982, 2006; Forey & Janvier 1993). The Lampreys comprise 38 species in 10 genera (Potter & Gill 2003), together with the Drin Brook Lamprey...
Chapter 4 Dasyatidae: Whiptail Stingrays
Michael D. Burns, Carter R. Gilbert, and Melvin L. Warren, Jr.
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The Whiptail Stingrays (Dasyatidae) are members of the order Myliobatiformes (Stingrays), a group of 10 families that are included, together with 3 other orders, in the subdivision Batoidea of the class Chondrichthyes (Cartilaginous Fishes) (McEachran & Aschlimann 2004; Nelson 2006). Whiptail Stingrays are members of the superfamily Dasyatoidea, which also includes the families Potamotrygonidae (River Stingrays), Gymnuridae (Butterfly Rays), and Myliobatidae (Ea gle Rays)....
Chapter 5 Acipenseridae: Sturgeons
Bernard R. Kuhajda
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The Acipenseridae consist of 25 extant species in 4 genera, including 17 species in Acipenser, 2 in Huso, 3 in Pseudoscaphirhynchus, and 3 in Scaphirhynchus (Birstein & Bemis 1997; Birstein et al. 1997a; Billard & Lecointre 2001; Ludwig 2008). The word “acipenser” is the Latin name for Sturgeon. Sturgeons occur on all continents in the Northern Hemisphere and are almost completely restricted to the northern temperate zone (Bemis & Kynard 1997; Choudhury & Dick 1998). The greatest diversity of Sturgeons...
Chapter 6 Polyodontidae: Paddlefishes
Bernard R. Kuhajda
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The family Polyodontidae, the Paddlefi shes, has only two living species, the Chinese Paddlefi sh, Psephurus gladius, and the North American Paddlefish, Polyodon spathula (Fig. 6.1), although numerous fossil Paddlefishes date back to >100 mya. The Paddlefi sh was originally described as a Shark (Chondrichthyes, Cartilaginous Fishes) in the late 1700s due to its cartilaginous skeleton, jaw structure, and shark-like tail, but Paddlefishes are actually ancient bony...
Chapter 7 Lepisosteidae: Gars
Anthony A. Echelle and Lance Grande
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Living Gars are easily identified by their torpedo-shaped bodies encased in hard, rhombohedral- shaped scales, their posteriorly set median fins, and their elongate bills lined with sharply pointed teeth. Today’s Gars (order Lepisosteiformes) include seven species, five in eastern North America and one each in Cuba and the tropics of Central America. They are living fossils in the sense of Hubbs & Lagler (1958:30) and Wiley & Schultze (1984)....
Chapter 8 Amiidae: Bowfins
Brooks M. Burr and Micah G. Bennett
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The family Amiidae, the Bowfins, has only one living species, the North American Bowfin (Amia calva), although numerous (about nine genera) fossil Bowfins date back to Early Cretaceous times (118 mya). Originally described by Linnaeus (1766) from a specimen sent to him from Charleston, South Carolina, this morphologically distinctive fish has ≥11 recognized synonyms (Jordan & Evermann 1896; Eschmeyer & Fricke 2011)....
Chapter 9 Hiodontidae: Mooneyes
Eric J. Hilton, William E. Bemis, and Lance Grande
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The family Hiodontidae, the Mooneyes (subdivision Osteoglossomorpha, order Hiodontiformes), contains two species that are considered living fossils and are similar to other basal groups of fi shes (e.g., Gars, Lepisosteidae; Bowfins, Amiidae) in having a long fossil record from the fresh waters of North America and being species-poor relative to the extant fauna. The sister-order to the...
Chapter 10 Anguillidae: Freshwater Eels
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Given their unique life history, ecol ogy, adaptations, migrations, and behaviors, anguillid Eels, or Freshwater Eels (Anguillidae: Anguilliformes, Eels), comprise perhaps one of the most familiar, common, geo graph i cally widely dispersed, yet enigmatic and poorly understood groups of fi shes. The family name Anguillidae is formed from the Latin root for Eel and is related to “anguis,” snake (Boschung & Mayden 2004). Their simple and familiar...
Chapter 11 Engraulidae: Anchovies
Lisa J. Hopman and Carter R. Gilbert
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The Engraulidae (Anchovies) is a member of the order Clupeiformes (Herrings), a taxonomically welldifferentiated group of five families forming one of the more basal groups of teleostean fishes (Nelson 2006). The most distinctive morphological characters of Anchovies are their large mouths and rounded snouts. Anchovies are usually small, silvery, schooling fishes that generally feed...
Chapter 12 Cyprinidae: Carps and Minnows
Nicholas J. Gidmark and Andrew M. Simons
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The family Cyprinidae (Carps and Minnows) is contained in the Otophysi, a large monophyletic group that includes Characiformes (e.g., African Tetras, Alestiidae; Characins, Characidae); Cypriniformes (e.g., Carps and Minnows, Cyprinidae; Suckers, Catostomidae; and Loaches, Cobitidae); Siluriformes, Catfishes; and Gymnotiformes, ...
Chapter 13 Catostomidae: Suckers
Phillip M. Harris, Gregory Hubbard, and Michael Sandel
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Catostomids (order Cypriniformes) are commonly called Suckers because these fishes use their downward-directed mouths like vacuum cleaners to suck up small organisms, organic matter, and some detritus. The family name, Catostomidae, is derived from the Latinized Greek roots “kato,” meaning “downward,” and “stoma,” meaning “mouth” (Boschung & Mayden 2004). Mullet is another name commonly...
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Index of Scientific Names
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Page Count: 832
Illustrations: 132 color photos, 71 color illus., 72 line drawings, 85 maps
Publication Year: 2014