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Atlas of Crustacean Larvae

edited by Joel W. Martin, Jørgen Olesen, and Jens T. Høeg

Publication Year: 2014

Crustaceans—familiar to the average person as shrimp, lobsters, crabs, krill, barnacles, and their many relatives—are easily one of the most important and diverse groups of marine life forms. Poorly understood, they are among the most numerous invertebrates on earth. Most crustaceans start life as eggs and move through a variety of morphological phases prior to maturity. In Atlas of Crustacean Larvae, more than 45 of the world's leading crustacean researchers explain and illustrate the beauty and complexity of the many larval life stages. Revealing shapes that are reminiscent of aliens from other worlds—often with bizarre modifications for a planktonic life or for parasitization, including (in some cases) bulging eyes, enormous spines, and aids for flotation and swimming—the abundant illustrations and photographs show the detail of each morphological stage and allow for quick comparisons. The diversity is immediately apparent in the illustrations: spikes that deter predators occur on some larvae, while others bear unique specializations not seen elsewhere, and still others appear as miniature versions of the adults. Small differences in anatomy are shown to be suited to the behaviors and survival mechanisms of each species. Destined to become a key reference for specialists and students and a treasured book for anyone who wishes to understand "the invertebrate backbone of marine ecosystems," Atlas of Crustacean Larvae belongs on the shelf of every serious marine biologist.

Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press

Title Page, Frontispiece, Copyright, Dedication

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Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Contributors

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pp. ix-x

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xiv

We are grateful to a large number of people and organizations who made this volume possible. Generous funding to help offset the cost of publication was provided by the Danish Carlsberg Foundation through a grant to Jørgen Olesen. We are extremely grateful for that crucial support, without which this volume could...

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1. Introduction

Joel W. Martin, Jørgen Olesen, Jens T. Høeg

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pp. 1-7

The great biodiversity of the Crustacea, both in terms of the number of species and in terms of their tremendous morphological range, continues to fascinate and challenge us. The most recent compilation (Ahyong et al. 2011) estimates over 1,000 extant families and nearly 70,000 described species. But morphological diversity is where the group is truly staggering. In...

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2. The Crustacean Nauplius

Joel W. Martin, Jørgen Olesen, Jens T. Høeg

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pp. 8-16

Because crustaceans are so morphologically diverse, it is difficult to find characters that are shared by all, or even by most, members of the group. Indeed, there are few characters that we can point to as being specifically and uniquely crustacean. One such character is the nauplius larva, a developmental phase that immediately identifies its owner...

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3. Fossil Larvae (Head Larvae, Nauplii, and Others) from the Cambrian in Orsten Preservation

Carolin Haug, Joachim T. Haug, Andreas Maas, Dieter Waloszek

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pp. 17-26

The Orsten is a special type of phosphatic preservation of mainly arthropod fossils from the Cambrian (approximately 525 to 488 million years old) that provides an exceptional view on the early evolution of the Crustacea and their larval types. Many workers (e.g., Stein et al. 2008; J. Haug et al. 2009b, 2010a, 2010b) use the term Crustacea...

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4. Introduction to the Branchiopoda

Joel W. Martin, Jørgen Olesen

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pp. 27-28

The Branchiopoda is a relatively species-poor assemblage— estimated at approximately 1,000 extant species (J. W. Martin and Davis 2006; Brendonck et al. 2008)—of small, typically phyllopodous (leaf-limbed) crustaceans. Somewhat unusually among crustaceans, they are known almost exclusively from ephemeral ponds, lakes, and...

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5. Anostraca

Jørgen Olesen

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pp. 29-35

Anostracan branchiopods are commonly called fairy shrimps or brine shrimps. They are a group of mostly colorful freshwater crustaceans, characterized by their peculiar habit of swimming upside down while using their phyllopodous thoracopods to filter organic particles from the water (although a few species scrape algae from surfaces). Anostracans...

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6. Uniquely Preserved Fossil Larvae, Some with Branchiopod Affinities, from the Devonian: The Rhynie and Windyfield Cherts

Carolin Haug, Joachim T. Haug, Jørgen Olesen

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pp. 36-39

The Rhynie chert, together with the relatively close Windyfield chert, is a fossil deposit of Devonian age (ca. 400 million years ago) that provides a unique view into the early evolution of a proposed terrestrial and freshwater biota (but see Channing and Edwards 2009). Although the finds are dominated by exceptionally well-preserved plants, there...

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7. Notostraca

Jørgen Olesen, Ole Sten Møller

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pp. 40-46

Notostracans are commonly called tadpole shrimps. They are a species-poor group of distinctly archaiclooking branchiopod crustaceans. The number of species is much debated because of morphological plasticity, and cryptic species may be involved (King and Hanner 1998; Rogers 2001; M. Korn and Hundsdoerfer 2006). Traditionally, 11 species divided...

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8. Laevicaudata

Jørgen Olesen, Joel W. Martin

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pp. 47-50

Laevicaudatans (Lynceidae) are small bivalved branchiopods sometimes (along with spinicaudatans and cyclestheriids) called clam shrimps. Among clam shrimps, the Laevicaudata are easily recognized by the globular form of the carapace, which can enclose the entire animal, including the very large head (fig. 8.2H). Growth lines of the carapace—such as...

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9. Spinicaudata

Jørgen Olesen, Mark J. Grygier

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pp. 51-57

Spinicaudatans are a group of branchiopods that (along with the laevicaudatans and cyclestheriids) are commonly known as clam shrimps (see chapters 8 and 10). They are a relatively species-poor group of branchiopods (ca. 150 species; Brendonck et al. 2008), characterized by their bivalved and growth-line-bearing shells (carapaces), somewhat resembling...

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10. Cyclestherida

Jørgen Olesen

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pp. 58-62

Cyclestheridans are small bivalved branchiopods commonly called clam shrimps (together with spinicaudatans and laevicaudatans; see chapters 8 and 9). Traditionally they have been grouped with the Spinicaudata, but they are now placed in the monotypic order Cyclestherida. Among clam shrimps, cyclestheridans are easily recognized by the rounded...

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11. Cladocera: Anomopoda

Jørgen Olesen

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pp. 63-68

The Anomopoda is a diverse taxon of water fleas (Cladocera). They are commonly found in most freshwater habitats, and even interstitially or in moist habitats (Frey 1980; J.W. Martin 1992; Dumont and Negrea 2002). Forró et al. (2008) estimated 537 currently described species and recognized 11 families. Sizes range from less than 0.3 mm to about 6 mm, and...

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12. Cladocera: Ctenopoda

Jørgen Olesen

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pp. 69-72

Ctenopods are small, often hyaline water fleas (Cladocera). The species are divided among 3 families (the Sididae, Holopediidae, and Pseudopenilidae), which are found most commonly in open water, although some are benthic or associated with vegetation. Forró et al. (2008) estimated 50 currently described species. Most are freshwater species, but...

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13. Cladocera: Haplopoda

Jørgen Olesen

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pp. 73-79

The Haplopoda is a taxonomically small group of large (typically about 12 mm), nearly transparent predatory water fleas (cladocerans). It consists of only 1 genus, Leptodora, which contains 1 widespread species, L. kindtii, described more than 150 years ago in an 1844 newspaper article by Focke (see Dumont and Hollwedel 2009), and another...

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14. Cladocera: Onychopoda

Jørgen Olesen, Stefan Richter

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pp. 80-83

The Onychopoda is a species-poor taxon of peculiar water fleas, characterized by an enormous compound eye and four pairs of segmented (non-phyllopodous) trunk limbs, both of which are related to their raptorial/predatory lifestyle (fig. 14.1A). Another special character is the closed brood chamber (modified carapace) in which the embryos are...

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15. Remipedia

Jørgen Olesen, Søren Varbek Martinsen, Thomas M. Iliffe, Stefan Koenemann

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pp. 84-89

Remipedes are a relatively small group of blind, unpigmented, chilopod-like crustaceans that includes 24 described extant species. The body length of adults ranges from 9 to 45 mm among species. All extant remipedes inhabit difficult-to-access underwater caves with hypoxic groundwater (Koenemann and Iliffe 2013). They were discovered as late...

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16. Cephalocarida

Jørgen Olesen, Søren Varbek Martinsen, George Hampson, Alberto Addis, Marcella Carcupino

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pp. 90-96

Cephalocarids are a species-poor group of small (less than 4 mm), marine, ancient-looking crustaceans (fig. 16.1A–C). They were first described by H. Sanders (1955), based on specimens from the muddy bottom of Long Island Sound, USA, but they have been found subsequently in the North and South Atlantic Ocean, the North and South Pacific...

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17. Introduction to the Thecostraca

Jens T. Høeg, Benny K. K. Chan, Joel W. Martin

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pp. 97-99

The Thecostraca, which includes the well-known Cirripedia (barnacles), is a large assemblage of diverse crustaceans in which parasitism and adaptation to unusual habitats have resulted in a wide range of unusual morphologies and lifestyles. Larval morphology has always played a critical role in studies of their systematics and evolution, and until...

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18. Facetotecta

Jens T. Høeg, Benny K. K. Chan, Gregory A. Kolbasov, Mark J. Grygier

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pp. 100-103

The Facetotecta (or enigmatic y-larvae) have been found in the plankton in many seas. Adult stages of the facetotectans are still unknown in situ. Their larval development consists of at least five naupliar instars and a cypridoid (y-cypris) larva (Itô 1990; Grygier 1996; Kolbasov and Høeg 2003). The naupliar head shield and the carapace...

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19. Ascothoracida

Jens T. Høeg, Benny K. K. Chan, Gregory A. Kolbasov, Mark J. Grygier

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pp. 104-106

The Ascothoracida are ecto-, meso- or endoparasites in echinoderms and anthozoans (Grygier and Høeg 2005). Except for the secondarily hermaphroditic species of the Petrarcidae, they have separate sexes. The larger female is accompanied by dwarf cypridiform-like males, often living inside her mantle cavity. Ascothoracidans use their piercing...

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20. Acrothoracica

Gregory A. Kolbasov, Benny K. K. Chan, Jens T. Høeg

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pp. 107-110

The Acrothoracica is a group of small burrowing epibiotic barnacles, found largely in carbonate sediments and the skeletons of marine mollusks. Acrothoracicans are dioecious, with suspension-feeding females bearing dwarf males attached externally to the mantle sac. Females lack calcareous plates and live inside burrows (Tomlinson 1969; Kolbasov...

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21. Rhizocephala

Jens T. Høeg, Benny K. K. Chan, Alexey V. Rybakov

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pp. 111-115

Rhizocephalans are very successful and entirely parasitic members of the Cirripedia. With more than 250 species, they comprise about one quarter of all cirripede species, and their parasitic mode of life is therefore a major component in the success of the subclass (Høeg et al. 2005). Rhizocephalans parasitize other Crustacea, with most species infesting...

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22. Thoracica

Benny K. K. Chan, Jens T. Høeg, Ryusuke Kado

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pp. 116-121

Thoracican cirripedes include the well-known crustaceans referred to as barnacles. The group contains more than 1,000 species worldwide and exhibits an extreme diversity in body forms, including stalked and acorn barnacles, cup-shaped sponge barnacles, and the asymmetrical Verrucomorpha (D. Anderson 1994). Thoracican cirripedes inhabit...

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23. Tantulocarida

Rony Huys, Jørgen Olesen, Alexandra S. Petrunina, Joel W. Martin

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pp. 122-127

The Tantulocarida is a small group of microcrustaceans that exhibits a unique protelean life cycle, composed of obligatory ectoparasitic larvae and free-swimming non-feeding adults. Larval tantulocaridans utilize other marine crustaceans as hosts, including copepods, amphipods, tanaidaceans, isopods, cumaceans, and ostracods (Huys 1991; Boxshall...

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24. Branchiura

Ole Sten Møller, Jørgen Olesen

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pp. 128-134

Branchiurans are commonly known as fish or carp lice. They are a relatively small group of mostly limnic fish ectoparasites, consisting of 4 genera and approximately 230 species. They can also occur in marine habitats. Argulus is widespread in fresh waters, where it feeds on a wide variety of hosts, and it is a significant problem in aquaculture. Branchiuran...

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25. Pentastomida

Joel W. Martin

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pp. 135-137

Pentastomids are a small group of parasites of the respiratory tract (trachea, lungs, and nasal passages) of reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals. On occasion their hosts can include humans (Riley 1986), where they can cause dermatitis and visceral pentastomiasis (Paré 2008). They are sometimes called tongue worms, because of the resemblance...

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26. Mystacocarida

Jørgen Olesen, Joachim T. Haug

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pp. 138-143

Mystacocaridans are tiny, interstitial, somewhat worm-like crustaceans. They are a species-poor group (13 species) found interstitially in the intertidal zones of sandy beaches in many parts of the world, such as the Mediterranean area, Africa, the western coast of North America, South America, and Western Australia (Hessler 1992b; Boxshall and...

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27. Copepoda

Rony Huys

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pp. 144-163

Copepods outnumber every other group of multicellular animals on earth, including the hyperabundant insects and nematode worms (Hardy 1970; Huys and Boxshall 1991). These small crustaceans are found throughout the world’s natural and man-made aquatic environments, spanning the entire salinity range from fresh water to hypersaline...

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28. Introduction to the Ostracoda

Robin J. Smith

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p. 164-164

The Ostracoda are a diverse group of aquatic crustaceans, typically 0.3–5 mm long, although the predatory deep-sea Gigantocypris can reach lengths of more than 30 mm. The most distinctive feature of the Ostracoda is their calcitic carapace; it is a hard bivalved shell, hinged along the back, that can be closed to entirely cover and protect the...

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29. Ostracoda: Podocopa

Robin J. Smith

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pp. 165-168

The Podocopa is one of the 2 extant subclasses (the other being the Myodocopa) that form the Ostracoda, commonly called seed shrimps. The Podocopa is divided into 3 orders: the Platycopida, Podocopida, and Palaeocopida. Podocopans are small, typically 0.3–5 mm in length, and are characterized by a calcified bivalved carapace that entirely...

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30. Ostracoda: Myodocopa

Shin-ichi Hiruta, Shimpei Hiruta

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pp. 169-173

Myodocopan ostracods consist of 2 orders and 3 suborders—the Myodocopida, containing the Myodocopina; and the Halocyprida, containing the Halocypridina and Cladocopina (Horne et al. 2002)—with more than 600 extant species. Most Halocypridina species are holopelagic, and most Cladocopina species are benthic, with both groups living in...

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31. Introduction to the Malacostraca

Joel W. Martin

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pp. 174-175

The crustacean class Malacostraca is an enormous assemblage that traditionally has been treated as consisting of 3 subclasses: the Phyllocarida (containing the relatively species-poor order Leptostraca, whose species are also known colloquially as sea fleas), the Hoplocarida (containing the entirely predatory stomatopods, or mantis...

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32. Fossil Malacostracan Larvae

Joachim T. Haug, Shane Ahyong, Carolin Haug

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pp. 176-179

Mesozoic limestones—especially the Jurassic lithographic limestones of southern Germany (including the well-known Solnhofen deposits), but also the Cretaceous limestones of Lebanon and Brazil—are the only fossil lagerstätten that have yielded fossil malacostracan larvae to date. In the Solnhofen lithographic limestones, fossil palinurid larvae are...

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33. Leptostraca

Jørgen Olesen, Todd A. Haney, Joel W. Martin

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pp. 180-184

The Leptostraca is a relatively small group (about 40 species) of marine malacostracan crustaceans, sometimes called sea fleas. Leptostracans have also been called hooded shrimps or thin-shelled shrimps (e.g., J.W. Martin and Haney 2009); lepto is Greek for “thin” or “delicate.” Currently, the Leptostraca is divided among 3 families and 10 genera (Haney...

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34. Stomatopoda

Shane T. Ahyong, Joachim T. Haug, Carolin Haug

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pp. 185-189

Stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are well known as highly efficient predators. They are readily recognized by their triflagellate antennules, articulated rostrum, and subchelate maxillipeds, with the second developed as a massive raptorial claw. Almost 500 extant species are known, currently arrayed in 17 families and 7 superfamilies (F. Schram...

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35. Syncarida

Horst Kurt Schminke

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pp. 190-193

Syncarids are small, presumably primitive crustaceans found mostly in subterranean waters. There are two orders of syncarids: the Anaspidacea and Bathynellacea. The Anaspidacea are confined to the Southern Hemisphere. In Australia they live in surface and subterranean waters, while in New Zealand and southern South America they are all...

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36. Introduction to the Peracarida

Joel W. Martin

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p. 194-194

The Peracarida are an incredibly diverse group of mostly small crustaceans (with some notable exceptions). They are found in nearly all habitats and exhibit a wide range of lifestyles. Most are marine, but freshwater and terrestrial forms are common, as are parasites. Estimates of the number of described species are in the range of 20,000 to...

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37. Thermosbaenacea, Spelaeogriphacea, and “Mictacea”

Jørgen Olesen, Tom Boesgaard, Thomas M. Iliffe, Les Watling

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pp. 195-198

The Thermosbaenacea, Spelaeogriphacea, and “Mictacea” (which is probably paraphyletic) are three taxa of small, eyeless, unpigmented malacostracan crustaceans. They are represented by very few species from subterranean waters and, in the case of the “Mictacea,” from the deep sea. The Spelaeogriphacea and “Mictacea” have peracarid affinities (a...

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38. Lophogastrida and Mysida

Carlos San Vicente, Guillermo Guerao, Jørgen Olesen

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pp. 199-205

Lophogastrids and mysids are shrimp-like crustaceans that are known as opossum shrimps, due to the presence of a ventral brood pouch (marsupium) in mature females. They are readily distinguished from other shrimplike crustaceans, such as euphausiids and carideans, by the presence of a statocyst in the proximal part of the endopod...

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39. Amphipoda

Carsten Wolff

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pp. 206-209

The Amphipoda (beachhoppers and related groups) is one of the most species-rich groups within the Peracarida, with more than 170 extant families and perhaps half of the estimated 22,000 species of peracarids (J.W. Martin and Davis 2001; Ahyong et al. 2011). Amphipods are also one of the most ecologically diverse peracarid groups. They...

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40. Isopoda and Tanaidacea

Christopher B. Boyko, Carsten Wolff

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pp. 210-215

Isopods and tanaidaceans are often elongate, usually dorsoventrally depressed peracarid crustaceans. Combined, these 2 orders include an estimated 11,500 described species (Blazewicz-Paszkowycz et al. 2012; J. Williams and Boyko 2012). The majority of isopods and tanaidaceans exhibit direct development, passing from embryo to manca stages...

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41. Cumacea

Sarah Gerken, Joel W. Martin

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pp. 216-218

Cumaceans are small benthic peracarids with a distinctive shape. The carapace is large and inflated, and the thorax and abdomen are relatively slender. Currently, 8 families and approximately 100 genera are recognized. There are about 1,500 described species, most of which live in the first few centimeters of sand or mud substrates in marine or...

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42. Introduction to the Eucarida

Joel W. Martin

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p. 219-219

The Eucarida is usually treated as a superorder within the subclass Malacostraca. It contains only three orders: the Euphausiacea (krill), Amphionidacea (monotypic, Amphionides reynaudii) and Decapoda (crabs, shrimps, lobsters, and their many relatives). Eucarids are distinguished from other malacostracans by having the carapace fused dorsally to all of the...

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43. Euphausiacea

Joel W. Martin, Jaime Gómez-Gutiérrez

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pp. 220-225

Euphausiaceans (commonly called krill, or euphausiids) are elongate shrimp-like marine holoplanktonic and micronektonic crustaceans, often found in huge swarms (schools) that can attain enormous biomass (Everson 2000). Juvenile and adult phases have well-developed thoracic gills that are not covered by the carapace, large dark compound...

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44. Amphionidacea

Joel W. Martin, Verena Kutschera

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pp. 226-229

The sole reported species of the order Amphionidacea and family Amphionidae is Amphionides reynaudii, a small (to 30 mm long) pelagic shrimp-like crustacean found in all oceans between latitudes 36° N and 36° S. The species, although morphologically quite variable, is characterized by having a very thin, almost membranous carapace that is...

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45. Introduction to the Decapoda

Joel W. Martin

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pp. 230-234

The Decapoda is a diverse and morphologically disparate group of malacostracan crustaceans. Most decapods are familiar to everyone, and many of them are consumed by humans all over the world. Included within this order are the familiar crabs, lobsters, shrimps, and hermit crabs, as well as many other lesser-known groups. The Decapoda...

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46. Dendrobranchiata

Joel W. Martin, Maria M. Criales, Antonina dos Santos

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pp. 235-242

The Dendrobranchiata contains the economically important penaeoid and sergestoid shrimps. Among other characters, members of this suborder are recognized by their caridoid facies (elongate shrimp-like shape), dendrobranchiate (highly branching) gills, typically chelate first three pairs of legs, a second abdominal somite with pleura that do...

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47. Stenopodidea

Joseph W. Goy

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pp. 243-249

Stenopodideans are a unique group of very colorful shrimp-like crustaceans with a particular blend of natant (swimming) and reptant (crawling) characteristics that make them difficult to place in the decapod family tree. They are one of the smallest infraorders of decapods, with only about 70 described species in 3 families (De Grave et al. 2009; Goy 2010). The...

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48. Caridea

Guillermo Guerao, José A. Cuesta

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pp. 250-255

Carideans are commonly called shrimps or prawns (as are dendrobranchiates). They are the largest group of the shrimp-like Decapoda, with an estimated 3,438 extant species, partitioned among 389 genera, 36 families, and 16 superfamilies (Holthuis 1993; Bracken et al. 2009a; De Grave et al. 2009; Fransen and De Grave 2009; De Grave and Fransen...

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49. Astacidea

Joseph W. Goy

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pp. 256-262

The Infraorder Astacidea contains the marine clawed lobsters and freshwater crayfishes. The group consists of five superfamilies: 1 extinct (the Palaeopalaemonoidea), 2 for the marine clawed lobsters (the Enoplometopoidea and Nephropoidea), and 2 for freshwater crayfishes (the Astacoidea and Parastacoidea), with about 650 living species in...

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50. Gebiidea and Axiidea (= Thalassinidea)

Gerhard Pohle, William Santana

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pp. 263-271

Gebiids and Axiids are widely referred to as ghost shrimps (Callianassidae), mud shrimps (Upogebiidae), mud lobsters (Thalassinidae), or lobster shrimps (Axiidae) (McLaughlin et al. 2005). The two groups presently include 13 families, containing 615 extant species that represent about 4.2 percent of all decapods (De Grave et al. 2009). Recent...

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51. Achelata

Ferran Palero, Paul F. Clark, Guillermo Guerao

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pp. 272-278

The Achelata (formerly called the Palinura) includes the spiny and slipper lobsters. They are decapod crustaceans characterized by the lack of chelae on all pereopods as adults (except for the small grooming chela of the fifth pereopod in females) and by the phyllosoma, a transparent, flat-bodied larval phase adapted for long-distance dispersal...

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52. Polychelida

Joel W. Martin

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pp. 279-282

Polychelids are a relatively species-poor group of deep-sea lobsters with an unusual flattened carapace, greatly reduced eyes, chelae on the first four (and sometimes five) pereopods, and delicate elongate first pereopods (chelipeds). This infraorder, the last remnant of a mostly extinct lineage, is represented by only 1 currently recognized extant...

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53. Anomura

Alan Harvey, Christopher B. Boyko, Patsy McLaughlin, Joel W. Martin

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pp. 283-294

The Anomura contains a remarkably diverse array of decapod crustaceans. Adults are common benthic inhabitants from the intertidal zone to abyssal depths, and from the equator to the poles. In addition, they are conspicuous components of atypical decapod habitats, such as hydrothermal vents, bodies of fresh water, and even terrestrial...

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54. Brachyura

Joel W. Martin

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pp. 295-310

Brachyurans (true crabs) are easily recognized by their typically wide, dorsoventrally compressed carapace, reduced abdomen tucked beneath the cephalothorax, and first legs modified as relatively large chelipeds (claws). They are the most speciose group of decapods, with nearly 7,000 extant species in 93 families and 38 superfamilies (Ng et al. 2008; De...

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55. Summary and Synopsis

Joel W. Martin, Jørgen Olesen, Jens T. Høeg

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pp. 311-314

This atlas, in presenting and comparing the majority of what is known about the larval morphology of all major crustacean groups—extant and extinct, marine and freshwater—is the first of its kind. Therefore, it is logical for us to take this opportunity to ask if there are obvious trends or insights afforded by this comparison. Can we make any general comments concerning...

Glossary

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pp. 315-324

References

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pp. 325-370


E-ISBN-13: 9781421411989
E-ISBN-10: 1421411989
Print-ISBN-13: 9781421411972
Print-ISBN-10: 1421411970

Page Count: 480
Illustrations: 134 color plates
Publication Year: 2014