A Short History
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
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Disease is a fundamental aspect of the human condition. Ancient kind’s written records, and sickness and death still confound us. We have not banished pain, disability, or the fear of death, even ten than acute ills, and in hospital or hospice beds and not in experienced in our bodies—but also in our minds and emotions. ...
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The first known representations of anxiety are found in cave paint-ings from the Paleolithic era. They vividly depict sources of fear—nature and sources of anxiety emerged during the fourth century vast array of available works spans both a temporal range of thou-sands of years and a variety of medical, philosophical, religious, ...
Chapter 1. Afraid
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Scientific views in the twenty-first century attempt to root the psychological and the physiological aspects of anxiousness in bi-ological processes that include brain circuitry, neurochemicals, and genes. Anxiety and its disorders involve brain regions that are devoted to fear recognition, including the amygdala, prefrontal ...
Chapter 2. Classical Anxiety
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The roots of current conceptions of anxiety and its disorders date back to the emergence of Classical Greek civilization in the fifth observational foundation for the study of health and disease. Dur-ness, including normal and pathological forms of fear and anxiety. provided a naturalistic foundation for the study of mental illness ...
Chapter 3. From Medicine to Religion—and Back
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The Roman emperor Constantine’s conversion to Christianity in the early fourth century heralded a new era in the West, marked by a religious worldview that largely supplanted empirical concep-tions of anxiety and other mental illnesses. The Christian empha-sis on the immateriality and immortality of the soul thoroughly ...
Chapter 4. The Nineteenth Century’s New Uncertainties
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...ated railroads and factories, powered unprecedented rates of social tion, and industrialization that tore individuals from more settled ways of life. The newly industrialized world created a wide range of uncertainties and at the same time weakened traditional social and cultural supports. Contemporary political, philosophical, sci-...
Chapter 5. The Freudian Revolution
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...theorist of the first half of the twentieth century was a central turn-ing point in the history of anxiety. Previous diagnosticians usually viewed anxiety as an aspect of a broader entity, be it Hippocratic melancholia, Cheyne’s nervous disorders, or Beard’s neurasthenia; they did not distinguish anxiety-related conditions from depres-...
Chapter 6. Psychology’s Ascendance
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During the first six decades of the twentieth century, psychoana-try. Outside of medicine, however, psychologists developed a be-havioral view that contrasted with the biological and intrapsychic conceptions that psychiatrists had favored since the middle of the on objective, empirical, and calculable measures. This starkly con-...
Chapter 7. The Age of Anxiety
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...central condition in medical and psychiatric practice but also a major aspect of Western culture. The first sentence of Rollo May’s popular book, The Meaning of Anxiety (1950), was illustrative: “Ev-ery alert citizen of our society realizes, on the basis of his own expe-rience as well as his observation of his fellow-men, that anxiety is a ...
Chapter 8. The Future of Anxiety
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Modern developed societies are the safest, healthiest, and most prosperous that have ever existed so we might expect that their citizens would have low levels of anxiousness. “Hasn’t one of the central accomplishments of modern civilization,” Norwegian phi-losopher Lars Svendson asks, “been the overall reduction of fear, ...
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Page Count: 208
Illustrations: 9 halftones, 3 line drawings
Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: Johns Hopkins Biographies of Disease
Series Editor Byline: Charles E. Rosenberg, Series Editor