Civil-Military Relations and Shared Responsibility
A Four-Nation Study
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
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Of all the books and articles I have written, this is indeed one of the most dif-ficult. Attempting to compare four different polities, each with its own history and culture at times seemed like an overwhelming undertaking. Yet, it seemed to me that it was time to try to test at least one proposition on more than one country. I was lucky that I had already done extensive academic work on civil-...
1. A Conceptual Framework for Shared Responsibility
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Military Service stands by itself; it has some of the qualities of a priest-hood, a professional civil servant; of a great bureaucratized business organization and an academic order. . . . It has something of each of these The primary focus of the study of civil-military relations in established, mature, stable polities should not be political control, for political control in such systems is usually a given: officers in all four armies discussed in this ...
PART I: UNITED STATES
2. From John F. Kennedy through Jimmy Carter
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There is no question of resisting civilian authority. However, it is very proper for the military commander to point out to civilian authorities During John F. Kennedyâs presidency, the U.S. military became involved in three major actionsâthe Bay of Pigs, the Cuban Missile Crisis, and Viet-nam. Kennedy attempted to move toward a relationship of shared responsi-bility with the military, but for several reasons he did not achieve it. The main ...
3. From Ronald Reagan through Barack Obama
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A lot of people believed that the military is eager to go out and shoot somebody, or that it should be; thatâs what they expect from the military. The modern military is not like that at all. In my experience, the civilians in the government were more eager to go shoot somebody than was the Despite continued policy differences and a sometimes rocky relationship, civil-military relations saw the emergence of shared responsibility in a ...
4. From Konrad Adenauer through Willy Brandt
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Unlike the case in the United States, Russia, and Canada, civil-military relations in the Federal Republic of Germany started from scratch. There wasnât a German army (Bundeswehr) prior to 1955. When the Germans cre-ated it, they not only had to build a structure, find qualified personnel, and obtain weapons, they had to break with Germanyâs military past, especially that of the Wehr macht and National Socialism.1 It was critical that the new ...
5. From Helmut Schmidt through Angela Merkel
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A new time in military strategy and tactics naturally demands a sui generis type of soldier. The citizen in uniform . . . has served its time.The period after 1974 witnessed a major shift in the focus of civil-military relations. While the issue of tradition gradually moved into the back-ground, focus changed from that of staffing and outfitting a military prepared to face a mass onslaught by the Russians to an expeditionary military. That ...
PART III: CANADA
6. From Paul Hellyer through Pierre Trudeau
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If a Canadian saw an admiral, letâs say in the front lobby of the Hotel Fort Garry, he would hand him his bags because he would think the admiral One of the main themes underlying civil-military relations in Germany was fear of a resurgent armed forces that could represent a danger to the civilian population: in Canada the populace ignored the military and saw little use for it in the furtherance of national interests. For many Canadians, the ...
7. From Brian Mulroney through Stephen Harper
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In Canada over the years it appears that the politics of defence matters After fifteen years of the antimilitary Pierre Trudeau and the machina-tions of Defence Minister Paul Hellyer, the Canadian military was hope-ful that the newly elected Conservative Brian Mulroney would be more sup-portive. At least, the armed forces believed he could not be worse than Trudeau or Hellyer had been. He was making some positive comments about the ...
PART IV: RUSSIA
8. From Boris Yeltsin through Vladimir Putin
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If a lion stands at the head of an army of lions, victory is assured. If a lion stands at the head of an army of asses, the chances are fifty-fifty. But if an ass stands at the head of an army of lions you can call it quits.The collapse of the USSR in 1991 ushered in a revolution in Russian civil-military relations. When Gorbachev came to power, he was willing to take on one of the countryâs most sacred institutionsâthe Soviet Army, the orga-...
9. From Vladimir Putin through Dmitry Medvedev
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It is entirely up to the president whether true military reforms take place, or whether the military bureaucracy continues pretending that reforms Putin understood military culture. He also made it clear that he was in charge, but he believed in attempting to create shared responsibility if pos-sible. He had served as a KGB officer, which is structurally modeled on the armed forces. He knew the military mind differed from the civilian mind, and ...
10. The Search for Shared Responsibility
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It is now time to return to the questions posed in the introduction. The the-sis of this work is that shared responsibility is the most desirable form of civil-military relations. In such a relationship, the civilians are in charge, and there is no question that their policies will be implemented. But the environ-ment in which the decision-making process takes place has a profound impact on these relations, in particular on the quality of decision-making. National ...
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Page Count: 368
Publication Year: 2013