Imaging and Imagining the Fetus
The Development of Obstetric Ultrasound
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
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We have been engaged in this work for what seems like an inordinate amount of time and have acquired many substantial debts over the years. We are particularly happy to acknowledge the support of Professor Iain T. Cameron. Following his appointment to Glasgow University as Regius Professor, he initiated collaboration ...
Chapter 1. Introduction: Historiographies of Obstetrics
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Visualizing the internal structures of the living body is a characteristic and defining feature of modern medicine.1 Several new imaging technologies were invented in the second half of the twentieth century, with ultrasound, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging being the most famous examples.2 ...
Chapter 2. Diagnostic Ultrasound before Thomas Brown
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Ultrasonic echolocation has its origins in the military and industrial contexts. We describe in this chapter the more important of the early attempts to adapt the technology for medical purposes.1 We investigate the problems and difficulties— biological, physical, electronic, social, and organizational— that confronted the pioneers of diagnostic ultrasound, ...
Chapter 3. Ian Donald before Ultrasound I: St. Thomas’s Hospital and the Royal Air Force
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Ian Donald, Regius Professor of Midwifery at the University of Glasgow, was the leading clinician involved in the introduction of obstetric ultrasound. In this chapter, we explore his early life and career with a view to understanding how and why he developed his distinctive practice of obstetrics and his interests in medical technology. ...
Chapter 4. Ian Donald before Ultrasound II: Hammersmith and Glasgow
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In the years before he began his work on diagnostic ultrasound, Ian Donald developed a characteristic approach to clinical work, and to the professional and social role of the obstetrician, that would be formative in his relationship to the new technology. In this chapter, we explore his maturing as a clinician and a researcher, ...
Chapter 5. A-Scope Investigations in Glasgow
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By 1955, Ian Donald was established in his post as Regius Professor of Midwifery and had already begun working on a new research project. In this chapter, we investigate his earliest attempts to apply ultrasound technology to clinical problems. In the course of our investigations, we employed an unorthodox historical method: ...
Chapter 6. The First Contact Scanner
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In the early months of 1957, Ian Donald, Tom Brown, and John MacVicar were hard at work in Glasgow’s Western Infirmary, applying their Kelvin and Hughes Mk IV flaw detector to the abdomen of any patient who looked suitable and trying to understand the echoes they received. ...
Chapter 7. The Automatic Scanner and the Diasonograph
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The first ultrasound images of the fetus were published in June 1958.1 The Lancet article by Ian Donald, John MacVicar and Tom Brown occasioned a great deal of interest and comment, in Britain and abroad. However, the scanner that Brown had built for Donald was not much more than an experimental mock-up. ...
Chapter 8. Behind the Iron Curtain: Ultrasound and the Fetus
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Ian Donald’s earliest clinical investigations with the ultrasonic scanner were in the field of gynecology, but there is no doubt that his imaging research achieved its greatest impact through its application to the gravid uterus. During the early 1960s, in a series of publications, Donald and his colleagues revealed the developing fetus and its disorders ...
Chapter 9. Diffusion, Controversy, and Commodification
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By the late 1960s, the diagnostic potential of ultrasound scanning was becoming widely accepted. The Queen Mother’s Hospital, in Glasgow, was the nationally and internationally acknowledged center for research into obstetric ultrasound. A steady stream of visitors— clinicians, radiologists, and engineers— traveled to Glasgow ...
Chapter 10. Ian Donald after Ultrasound: Contraception and Abortion
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In his last decade as Regius Professor at the University of Glasgow, Ian Donald continued his work with ultrasound and developed some other technological interests. In 1968, he adopted the “Snake” as a tool to hold surgical instruments in place during intricate procedures, pioneering its application in the new technique of laparoscopic sterilization.1 ...
Chapter 11. Maternity and Technology
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At Ian Donald’s memorial service, James Willocks suggested that those seeking a memorial to him should look around them in any maternity hospital. But one particular hospital manifested Donald’s legacy very directly indeed. The Queen Mother’s Hospital was, to a substantial degree, Donald’s creation. ...
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Page Count: 336
Illustrations: 15 halftones, 2 line drawings
Publication Year: 2013