Anna Seward and the End of the Eighteenth Century
Publication Year: 2012
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
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When I began working on this study in 2004, I thought I had chosenâto borrow the phrase from Jane Austenââa heroine whom no one but myself will much likeâ (Letters 209). Anna Seward (1742â1809) had been the subject of curiously pejorative biographies, had been overlooked by most scholars of the later eighteenth century, and was being dropped from both eighteenth-century and Romantic-era...
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Anthologies of both eighteenth-century and Romantic-era British poetry are beginning to include Anna Seward (1742â1809), who is attracting renewed scholarly attention after nearly two hundred years of critical neglect. Her poems have been cited recently as precursors of queer and environmental writing; she has been described as a provincial writer and as a domestic muse. None of these...
1. Under Suspicious Circumstances: The (Critical) Disappearance of Anna Seward
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When she died in 1809, Anna Seward was arguably âthe most prominent and formidable woman writerâ in Britain (Lonsdale 313). She had produced poetry that, when collected into three volumes, spanned genres from the ode to the sonnet to a novel in verse. Her critical opinions were frequently published in the Gentlemanâs Magazine. She had been the first biographer of Dr. Erasmus...
2. âFancyâs Shrineâ: Lady Millerâs Batheaston Poetical Assemblies
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Anna Seward participated in a local poetic coterie and circulated poems in manuscript, but she did not publish in print until 1780, a transitional time for poetry, publishing, and the professionalization of writing (Barnard, Anna Seward 110, 122). In this chapter, I examine the poems Seward chose to publish in her collected works (1809) from among those she presented to her...
3. The Profession of Poetry
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In Menâs Work, Linda Zionkowski outlines the process through which, over the course of the eighteenth century, writing gradually became defined as manly work (210). In many ways, of course, the gendering of âprofessionalâ as masculine and âamateurâ as feminine was a fictional creation. For example, women were perhaps less likely than men to write, teach, or perform musically for...
4. British Patriot
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Just as Anna Sewardâs approach to publication via Batheaston challenges our twenty-first-century notions of Romantic-era amateurism, professionalism, and careers, so too knowledge of eighteenth-century poetics challenges aesthetic standards that some have used to categorize her as a mediocre poet, as a careful reading proves her to have been quite accomplished by her centuryâs criteria. In this...
5. Wartime Correspondent: The French Wars and Late-Century Patriotism
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The Ode on General Eliott was the last of Sewardâs panegyrical odes. The following decade witnessed a torrent of patriotic verse as Britain waged war fi rst with revolutionary, then with Napoleonic, France. As Simon Bainbridge has observed, war became the central theme of British poetry, as poets seized their opportunity to portray and interpret the wars for domestic readers (2â5). But not for...
6. Seward and Sensibility: Louisa, a Poetical Novel, in Four Epistles
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In 1784, two years after publishing her elegy to Lady Miller, Seward published her most popular work. Louisa, a Poetical Novel, in Four Epistles went through five editions between its first appearance and 1792, not including an additional fifth edition published in Philadelphia in 1789. The story was calculated to attract and instruct an audience accustomed to admiring keen sensibility, and so in this...
7. Louisa and the Late Eighteenth-Century Family Romance
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When Seward revisited Louisa in 1784 after having set the project aside for some years, she had to develop the remainder of it without the aid of the map that Rousseau and Pope had provided to her as she wrote the first epistle. In this chapter, I analyze Sewardâs variation on the sentimental fiction of the 1780s and 1790s. In her recent literary history, Susan Staves suggests that self-abnegation...
8. Miltonâs Champion
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Sewardâs intervention in the developing novel genre is generally forgotten today, but her contribution to a particular lyric poetic form is widely acknowledged. Two hundred years after their publications captivated the British reading public, Charlotte Smithâs Elegiac Sonnets (1784â1811) and Sewardâs Original Sonnets on Various Subjects (1799) are generally regarded as landmarks in the late...
9. Corresponding Poems
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Seward rejected Charlotte Smithâs model of a chain, in which she rings changes on a single mood, in favor of what she considered Miltonâs precedent, sonnets written on particular occasions. In Smithâs cycle, her personal state of being gives rise to her verse; any and all occasions inspire variations on her theme. One might speculate that Smithâs drive to explore her personal ontology took precedence...
10. The âLostâ Honora
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Of one hundred sonnets, it is difficult to do more than generalize. Seward personally defined the sonnet in Miltonic terms and produced masterful renditions of the âlegitimateâ sonnet, and at the same time she anticipated her Romantic-era successors in certain ways but also differed from them in eschewing the model of poet as outcast. Still, Seward was a poet of sensibility and therefore...
11. Memoirs of the Life of Dr. Darwin: Digging in The Botanical Garden
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In my introduction, we glimpsed Seward in a characteristic posture in her autobiographical âLichfield, an Elegy.â Traveling past Honora Sneydâs burial place to her present home and by implication into the future when she will write this poem, Seward nevertheless strains her eyes looking back to catch a last glimpse of her belovedâs grave (l. 138). The image captures Sewardâs state of mind as she...
12. Anna Seward, Samuel Johnson, and the End of the Eighteenth Century
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The most surprising aspect of Sewardâs antipathy toward Samuel Johnson is that she shared a great many of his assumptions. Seward was twenty when, in 1762, the fifty-three year-old Johnson received a pension for his renowned Dictionary. More than a generation younger than Johnson, she devoured all of his writings and incorporated many of his literary judgments into her own...
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Page Count: 328
Publication Year: 2012