American National Security
Publication Year: 2009
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
Download PDF (67.2 KB)
title page, Copyright Page
Download PDF (61.6 KB)
Download PDF (49.7 KB)
Download PDF (42.3 KB)
That we now have the publication of the sixth edition of American NationalSecurity is testimony not merely to its continuing value as a primer but also tothe permanency of the role of the United States as the leading world power. Yet,the permanency of that role should not be taken to suggest the permanency of thechallenges that faces the United States. To the contrary, the challenge of National...
Download PDF (55.5 KB)
The sixth edition of American National Security has been almost entirely rewrit-ten to reflect the significant changes in national security policy formulation in thelast decade. This edition also brings the book full circle, back to its origins in theUnited States Military Academy’s Department of Social Sciences. The genesis ofthe first edition was an idea of the late Dr. Frank N. Trager, who observed in 1972...
Abbreviations and Acronyms
Download PDF (40.4 KB)
I: National Security Policy: What It Is, and How Americans Have Approached It
1 The International Setting
Download PDF (150.1 KB)
Every day, newspapers, television news channels, and Internet sites cover a widevariety of political, economic, and military developments around the world. Giventhis vast volume and variety of information, it can be difficult to determine whichevents and trends are most likely to affect the national security of the UnitedStates. Although the derivation of a constant set of generic criteria may be impos-...
2 Traditional American Approaches to National Security
Download PDF (146.9 KB)
Generalizations about distinctly American approaches to national security mat-ters should be advanced with the same caution warranted by all large general-izations. Americans are a heterogeneous group and tend to differ on policyissues along lines that may include age group, sex, party affiliation, region, so-cioeconomic status, education levels, religion, and ethnicity. Americans are...
3 The Evolution of American National Security Policy
Download PDF (189.5 KB)
National security strategy and military structure are shaped by the interactionsof a number of influences, many of which defy precise identification. However,there are three principal categories of variables through which the evolution ofstrategy and military structure can largely be traced. They are internationalpolitical and military developments, domestic priorities, and technological ad-...
II: National Security Policy: Actors and Processes
4 Presidential Leadership and the Executive Branch
Download PDF (428.4 KB)
...“The direction of war implies the direction of the common strength; and the powerof directing and employing the common strength forms a usual and essential partin the definition of the executive authority.”1 With these words, Alexander Hamil-ton described the crucial role of the president in national security affairs. An ap-preciation of this vital role was shared by all the founders of the United States, but...
Download PDF (204.4 KB)
Over two hundred years ago, Alexander Hamilton laid out the constitutionalframers’ rationale for the distinct roles of Congress and the president with thesewords: “The essence of the legislative authority is to enact laws, or, in otherwords, to prescribe rules for the regulation of the society; while the execution ofthe laws, and the employment of the common strength, either for this purpose or...
6 Homeland Security
Download PDF (227.1 KB)
Protecting the U.S. homeland and its citizens against all manner of threats hasbeen one of the foremost duties of government throughout the country’s history;to this end, the Constitution empowers Congress to “raise and support Armies . . .provide and maintain a Navy,” and “provide for calling forth the Militia to executethe Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions.”1 The terrorist...
7 Intelligence and National Security
Download PDF (180.5 KB)
The Framers of the Constitution foresaw, in Alexander Hamilton’s words, that“accurate and comprehensive knowledge of foreign politics” would inevitably berequired in the management of America’s external relations.1 Intelligence, man-aged prudently, would be a useful and indeed necessary capability for the infantrepublic.2 More than two hundred years later, national security policy makers in...
8 The Role of the Military in the Policy Process
Download PDF (245.2 KB)
The military plays a unique and crucial role in U.S. national security policy for anumber of reasons. First, the military’s coercive capabilities make democratic po-litical control a matter of central importance. This concern shaped the drafting ofthe U.S. Constitution and, therefore, the legal framework that continues to governmilitary affairs to this day. Second, since the Korean War in the 1950s, the U.S....
9 Planning, Budgeting, and Management
Download PDF (167.4 KB)
A central problem of national security strategy is the limitation on the resourcesthat can be allocated to meet security objectives. A nation’s available resources—traditionally categorized by economists as land, labor, and capital—are valued bysociety, because they can be used to produce a variety of outputs of goods andservices that the society desires. When some of those resources are transferred to...
10 Putting the Pieces Together: National Security Decision Making
Download PDF (185.7 KB)
National security decision making is complex and fascinating because of the twoworlds it involves. As Samuel Huntington explains: “One [world] is internationalpolitics, the world of balance of power, wars and alliances, the subtle and brutaluses of force and diplomacy to influence the behavior of other states. The otherworld is domestic politics, the world of interest groups, political parties, social...
III: National Security Policy: Ways and Means of National Strategy
11 Shaping the International Environment
Download PDF (171.8 KB)
Dean Acheson, one of America’s wisest and most successful secretaries of stateonce said, “The purpose for which we carry on relations with foreign states is topreserve and foster an environment in which free societies may exist and flourish.Our policies and actions must be tested by whether they contribute to or detractfrom achievement of this end.”1 Shaping the environment in a far from malleable...
Download PDF (280.3 KB)
The end of the Cold War gave fresh impetus to the long-held view that economicfactors are paramount elements in national security affairs. In the new environ-ment, it is widely asserted that “military capabilities are likely to be less importantthan they have been in the past. Economic measures will be central.”1 Not only hasthis view gained adherents, but so has the associated idea that economic strength...
13 Military Power
Download PDF (216.4 KB)
Although the diplomatic, information, and economic instruments of nationalpower are important—particularly the economic one, which underpins the oth-ers—the military instrument of power has the greatest potential to be decisive.Because the use of military force always brings associated and sometimes signif-icant costs, however, resorting to force should always be a weighty decision con-...
14 Asymmetric Conflict, Terrorism, and Preemption
Download PDF (141.6 KB)
Perhaps the most significant development in U.S. national security in the pastdecade has been a broad recognition of the significant way in which terrorism canthreaten U.S. national security. Instead of challenging U.S. military strength di-rectly, terrorists and other adversaries can use asymmetric means to exploit U.S.weaknesses and to gain strategic political objectives. While the concepts of asym-...
15 Conventional War
Download PDF (111.4 KB)
As the Cold War ended and the “unipolar moment” of U.S. preeminence began, itwas reasonable to ask what kind of conventional, state-on-state conflicts Ameri-cans might find themselves fighting.1 With the terrorist attacks of September 11,2001, and U.S. dominance over any conventional army that it has faced, includingthe Iraqi Army in 1991 and 2003, some questioned whether the United States...
16 Irregular Challenges, Military Intervention, and Counterinsurgency
Download PDF (130.2 KB)
In explaining the position and role of the United States in the world, the 2002 U.S.National Security Strategy argues that “America is now threatened less by con-quering states than we are by failing ones. We are menaced less by fleets andarmies than by catastrophic technologies in the hands of the embittered few.”1 Atroot, this statement is about the decreasing relative importance of conventional,...
17 Nuclear Policy
Download PDF (196.4 KB)
Throughout the Cold War, nuclear weapons formed the backbone of Western de-fense policy. Unable to fully match the conventional military strength of the for-mer Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact, the United States and its North AtlanticTreaty Organization (NATO) allies used the threat of nuclear retaliation to helpavert what U.S. policy makers believed to be a serious risk of Soviet military ad-...
IV: International and Regional Security Issues
18 East Asia
Download PDF (328.1 KB)
East Asia is one of the few regions of the world in which the possibility of greatpower conflict remains substantial. The countries that make up Northeast Asia—defined here as including Russia, China, Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea, andJapan—all have significant military capabilities and are in close proximity to thelarge contingent of military force that the United States maintains in the area....
19 South Asia
Download PDF (253.9 KB)
Since World War II, U.S. policy toward South Asia has been largely shaped byU.S. global strategic interests rather than by developments within the region itself.The American perspective was influenced first by the Cold War struggle againstthe Soviet Union and later by rivalry with China’s burgeoning economic and po-litical power. South Asia’s secondary importance began to change in the late...
20 The Middle East
Download PDF (223.7 KB)
The new millennium ushered in momentous transformations in the MiddleEast that have significantly affected key U.S. interests. The Israeli-PalestinianPeace Process again stalled; the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001,served as an impetus for the U.S. invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq; and in-ternational concern grew over Iran’s possible pursuit of nuclear weapons. The...
21 Sub-Saharan Africa
Download PDF (181.8 KB)
The continent of Africa is four times larger than the United States, and it is hometo a vast array of resources and more than 940 million people.1 With thousandsof languages, unique tribal histories, and diverse political systems organized intoforty-six states, Africa is an incredibly difficult and complicated place aboutwhich to generalize (see Map 21.1). No single state or coalition on the African...
Download PDF (226.6 KB)
Relations between the United States and the Soviet Union, and then later be-tween the United States and post-Soviet Russia, have played an essential, cen-tral role in American national security. Marked by confrontation after WorldWar II, these relations shifted to expectations of partnership with the new Russ-ian state after the Soviet collapse. However, the first decade of the twenty-first...
Download PDF (234.5 KB)
For more than four decades after World War II, U.S. security policy toward Eu-rope focused on the East-West confrontation with the Soviet Union and the im-plementation of the policy of containment. The dissolution of the Soviet Unionin 1991, the expansion of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and theEuropean Union (EU), conflicts in the Balkans (especially in Bosnia-Herzegovina...
24 Latin America
Download PDF (216.6 KB)
Geography makes Latin America the neighbor of the United States, and by 2006Hispanic or Latino Americans were America’s largest single minority group at14.8% of the U.S. population.1 Driven by the search for jobs, opportunity, and se-curity, Hispanics are bringing their culture and a complex set of issues to urbanand rural areas of the United States. Due to Latin America’s growing importance,...
V: National Security Policy: Current and Future Issues in American National Security Policy
25 Globalization and Human Security
Download PDF (209.4 KB)
Although it is necessary to examine U.S. national security interests and challengesin particular regional and country contexts, it is no longer sufficient. Many impor-tant actors and issues are now global or transnational in nature. This importanttrend is now widely analyzed and discussed in terms of the impact of globalizationon the international system.1 Although there is no single agreed-upon definition,...
26 Looking Ahead
Download PDF (187.4 KB)
As this book goes to the printer, the United States is in the middle of the presi-dential transition from George W. Bush to Barack Obama. Reports abound inthe media about new government appointments and forthcoming domestic andforeign policy changes. This final chapter briefly examines seven national secu-rity issues that will face U.S. policy makers in the Obama administration and...
Download PDF (443.5 KB)
Download PDF (1.0 MB)
Page Count: 688
Illustrations: 31 halftones, 16 line drawings
Publication Year: 2009
Edition: sixth edition