Images of Evolution in the Jazz Age
Publication Year: 2008
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
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Science, like art, suggests radically new ways of seeing. This is a book about scientistsâ and artistsâ attempts to offer the public new ways to imagine the human evolutionary past; about how scientists responded to the evolution debates of the 1920s in the United States; and about the central importance in those debates of visual images. It focuses on the changing appearance of evolutionary theory as...
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This book had a lucky start in life: from the beginning it has benefited from the generosity of an extraordinary group of friends and colleagues. Mark Pittenger, Fred Anderson, Phil Deloria, John Enyeart, Susan Jones, and Erica Doss all read complete drafts (in some cases several complete drafts!) at various stages in the bookâs progress, always perceptively and in detail. John may have read...
1. The Caveman and the Strenuous Life
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Monkeys were everywhere in the 1920s. In a July 1925 cartoon in the magazine Judge, a congregation of friendly looking animals watched an appealing little monkey set off to go somewhere alone. The caption read, âThe upstart.â Anyone reading Judge that summer would immediately have understood that the little monkey was heading off to evolve and that the cartoon referred to the coming trial of John...
2. The Museum in the Modern Babylon
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In 1935 the Reverend Henry Sloane Coffin told the story of his debate, some thirteen years earlier, with the Reverend John Roach Straton, recalling that Stratonâ railing against the rampant immorality of New York Cityâhad asked rhetorically, âWho is responsible for this lewdness and this animalism?â Then, answering his own question, Straton thundered...
3. Nineteen Twenty-two or Thereabouts
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On Friday, February 24, 1922, Henry Fairfield Osborn recorded in his private diary: âBryan in the Times!!!!â William Jennings Bryanâs enlistment in the anti-evolution cause, and the publicity it generated, galvanized scientistsâat least some of them. On hearing from the New York Times that Bryanâs article would be featured on the following Sunday, Osborn flew into action. Invited by the paper...
4. Saving the Phenomena
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Scientists found themselves in a difficult position in the 1920s. The fossil evidence for human evolution remained fragmentary, and evolutionary theory was in disarray. Although scientists accepted the fact of evolution, they did not agree on natural selection. And natural selection had implications that turned their attention to the philosophical dimensions of evolution. The scientists who defended...
5. Unlikely Infidels
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Even John Roach Straton must have been impressed by the movie Evolution, judging by the vehemence of his denunciation of it. An August 1925 editorial in the New Republic described the movie, being shown âin all the better theatersâ during that summer of the Scopes trial, as âquite remarkable in its effects.â1 The movie beganâin the beginningâwith the evolution of planets, then of the earth....
6. Stooping to Conquer, and a Hall Full of Elephants
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Early in 1926, Osborn received a note from O. Farneur, a man from Brooklyn, who had read in the New York World of attacks by Bostonâs Cardinal William Henry OâConnell on the human evolution exhibit at the American Museum of Natural History. Farneur suggested that Osborn reply to such attacks in a series of radio broadcasts, beginning with a program about dinosaursââmost...
7. The Pictures in Our Heads
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According to H. L. Mencken, âthe climaxâ of William Jennings Bryanâs address to the court at the Scopes trial was âa furious denunciation of the doctrine that man is a mammal.â Mencken marveled: âIt seemed a sheer impossibility that any literate man should stand up in public and discharge any such nonsense. Yet the poor old fellow did it. Darrow stared incredulous. Malone sat with his...
8. Scientists and the Monkey Trial
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It was no coincidence that William Jennings Bryanâs denunciation of the family tree diagram at the Scopes trial came up during a dispute over the relevance of scientific testimony. Bryanâs was one of three passionate speeches adding drama to the discussion of expert testimony. The other two were by Dudley Field Malone for the defense and by the chief prosecutor, Tom Stewart, who until that moment...
9. Redeeming the Caveman, and the Irreverent Funny Pages
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An advertisement for Alfred Watterson McCannâs book Godâor Gorilla, devoted to excoriating Osborn and challenging the veracity of the Hall of the Age of Man, claimed that the book disproved the âTadpole and Monkey Theory of Evolution.â1 Both anti-evolutionists and newspaper and advertising copywriters seemed to find the word tadpole useful, heuristic, or humorous, perhaps implying...
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In his 1940 autobiography, Dusk of Dawn, W. E. B. Du Bois wrote, âI remember once in a museum, coming face to face with a demonstration: a series of skeletons arranged from a little monkey to a tall well-developed white man, with a Negro barely outranking a chimpanzee.â1 Du Boisâs reminiscence illustrates the long resonance of images of evolutionary ideas and suggests a reason for his...
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Page Count: 312
Illustrations: 4 halftones, 28 line drawings
Publication Year: 2008
Series Title: Medicine, Science, and Religion in Historical Context
Series Editor Byline: Ronald L. Numbers, Consulting Editor