The Resurgence of the Latin American Left
Publication Year: 2011
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
Download PDF (54.2 KB)
List of Tables and Figures
Download PDF (46.4 KB)
Download PDF (47.7 KB)
When left-leaning presidents began to get elected in numerous Latin American countries in the late 1990s, many observers, ourselves included, were reluctant to read too much into it. After all, Latin America had spent much of the previous two decades grappling with the economic consequences of ineffectual statism, and a broad consensus had formed in academic and policymaking circles that economic progress would require the unshackling of market forces. For most of the 1990s, then, every country in the region was moving toward freer markets and more open integration in the global economy, and conservative, technocratic governance was increasingly the norm. ...
Download PDF (67.4 KB)
Introduction: Latin Americaâs âLeft Turnâ: A Framework for Analysis
Download PDF (136.9 KB)
The beginning of the 21st century witnessed an unprecedented wave of electoral victories by leftist presidential candidates in Latin America. The wave began in 1998, when Hugo Ch
PART I: THEMATIC ISSUES
1 Evidence from Public Opinion
Download PDF (114.3 KB)
What is the relationship between the âleft turnâ and contemporary public opinion in Latin America? Presently we know little about what is driving the âpink tideâ at the mass level. Do the Leftâs election victories reflect a deep realignment of citizensâ ideological beliefs, a fleeting flirtation with new ideas after the promise of economic liberalization proved illusory, or simply citizensâ retrospective punishment of ...
2 Economic Constraints and Presidential Agency
Download PDF (112.0 KB)
This book was triggered by what scholars, journalists, and electoral analysts labeled âa leftward shiftâ in Latin American politics during the first decade of the 21st century. The movement got its footing in Venezuela with the 1998 election of Lieutenant Colonel Hugo ChÃ¡vez and gathered strength with the election of Brazilian union leader Luiz InÃ¡cio Lula da Silva in 2002, Peronist governor NÃ©stor Kirchner in Argentina ...
3 The Left: Destroyer or Savior of the Market Model?
Download PDF (109.4 KB)
Discontent with the market reforms of the 1980s and 1990s was crucial for sweeping left-wing governments into power during the past decade in a striking number of Latin American countries. Neoliberalism clearly failed to fulfill its promise of reigniting sustained growth and producing steady increases in employment. As high - and exaggerated - hopes for a turnaround in the regionâs economic fate were dashed, ...
4 The Political Left, the Export Boom, and the Populist Temptation
Download PDF (114.5 KB)
In the late 1980s, influential articles by Jeffrey Sachs (1989) and Rudiger Dornbusch and Sebastian Edwards (1990) traced strong parallels between populist responses to the debt crisis of the 1980s under Alan Garc
5 Social Policy and Redistribution: Chile and Uruguay
Download PDF (116.0 KB)
The rise of the Left in Chile and Uruguay, in 2000 and 2005, respectively, initiated a period of significant social policy reform. Indeed, Chileâs Socialist Party (PS) governments of Ricardo Lagos and Michelle Bachelet and Uruguayâs Frente Amplio (FA) administration headed by TabarÃ© VÃ¡zquez enacted more significant changes in education, health care, transfer, wage, and tax policy than the other left governments ...
6 The Diversity of Left Party Linkages and Competitive Advantages
Download PDF (120.7 KB)
The role of political parties as important organizational intermediaries between state and society in democratic regimes calls for analytic attention to the nature and strength of the linkages they form with mass constituencies. This topic is central for studies of contemporary Latin American politics, especially the âleft turnâ in the region, because of the considerable changes that have occurred in the party/electoral ...
7 The Left and Participatory Democracy: Brazil, Uruguay, and Venezuela
Download PDF (108.1 KB)
In the 1980s and early 1990s, when centrist, populist, or right-wing parties dominated Latin Americaâs new (and old) democracies, many of the regionâs left parties underwent a political transformation. Rather than dismissing or downplaying the importance of democratic institutions, as they often had before, parts of the Left came to view âdeepeningâ democracy as the primary goal (Roberts 1998). Direct citizen ...
8 The Left and Citizenship Rights
Download PDF (132.8 KB)
The Left is defined, at its core, by its commitment to advance the rights of the poor and disenfranchised. Through redistributive social and economic policies, the Left has classically aimed to ensure that citizensâ basic needs are met so as to advance a more just and equal society. This general statement, however, begs the question of how the Latin American Left has viewed and prioritized that commitment....
PART II: CASE ANALYSES
9 Venezuela: Hugo Ch
Download PDF (124.3 KB)
The rise of the Bolivarian forces to power under the leadership of Hugo Ch
10 Bolivia: Origins and Policies of the Movimiento al Socialismo
Download PDF (103.8 KB)
In Bolivia, as in much of Latin America, the Left is resurgent. In 2005 Evo Morales, the indigenous leader of a relatively new leftist party, the Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS), or the Movement toward Socialism, captured the presidency with a majority of the popular vote, the first time any presidential candidate has won an electoral majority since the return to democracy in 1982. Morales and the MAS followed up ...
11 Ecuador: Rafael Correa and the Citizensâ Revolution
Download PDF (112.9 KB)
As Ecuador prepared for a presidential inauguration in January 2007, signs of the countryâs left turn were unmistakable. On the day before Rafael Correa swore in as president, he traveled to the provincial town of Zumbahua. Flanked by Hugo ChÃ¡vez and Evo Morales, Correa donned a colorful poncho for a ritual blessing by indigenous elders. The festive occasion called for speeches. Invoking Simon BolÃvar and ...
12 Argentina: Left Populism in Comparative Perspective, 2003â2009
Download PDF (116.0 KB)
It is difficult to place Argentina within the recent wave of leftist resurgence in Latin America. Comparative approaches that locate the governments of NÃ©stor Kirchner (2003â7) and Cristina FernÃ¡ndez de Kirchner (2007â11) in the new map of the Latin American Left differ significantly. Although most general analyses (Cleary 2006; Lei-ras 2007, Roberts 2007) agree that the Kirchnersâ administrations are part of the ...
13 Brazil: The PT in Power
Download PDF (102.0 KB)
The Workersâ Party in Brazil (the Partido dos Trabalhadores, or PT) started out in the 1980s as a mass-organic party that became increasingly electoral-professional in nature as it contested state power in the electoral arena. After 22 years in the opposition and three failed presidential bids, the Workersâ Party and its effective leader, Luiz InÃ¡cio Lula da Silva, captured national executive office for the first time in 2002. Among ...
14 Chile: The Left after Neoliberalism
Download PDF (107.8 KB)
Within Latin Americaâs post-1998 political shift to the left, Chile anchors one end of the spectrum along a number of crucial dimensions. On the policy front, the Socialist-led governments of Ricardo Lagos (2000â2006) and Michelle Bachelet (2006â 10) were undoubtedly among the most cautious and moderate in the region. They maintained relatively orthodox fiscal, monetary, and trade policies, while working to ...
15 Uruguay: A Social Democratic Government in Latin America
Download PDF (139.9 KB)
The debut of the Uruguayan Left in government (2005â10) inaugurated a social democratic alternative, which joined the experiences of this kind emerging in Latin America at the start of the 21st century. The âwaveâ of Latin American left governments, which began in the late 1990s, has been characterized by manifestations of populism or popular nationalism, which are varieties of a recurrent political phenomenon in ...
16 Peru: The Left Turn That Wasnât
Download PDF (304.8 KB)
The day after Alan GarcÃa PÃ©rez, former president of Peru (1985â90) and leader of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Ameri-cana [APRA]) party, won the second round of the presidential election, the conservative newspaper El Comercio ran the headline âThe Mandate for GarcÃa Is Social Inclusion.â1 Owned by the aristocratic MirÃ³ Quesada family, which throughout much of ...
Conclusion: Democracy, Development, and the Left
Download PDF (144.9 KB)
As the case studies in this volume make clear, the Latin American Left is marked by considerable diversity. Despite a shared commitment to a more equitable development model, left governments in the region have varied both in their socioeconomic policies and in their approach to democratic governance. This variation ranges from liberal democratic governments in Brazil and Chile, which pursued redistributive ...
Download PDF (198.7 KB)
Download PDF (53.6 KB)
Download PDF (1.6 MB)
Page Count: 496
Illustrations: 15 figures
Publication Year: 2011