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The Inauguration of Organized Political Warfare: Cold War Organizations Sponsored by the National Committee for a Free Europe/ Free Europe Committee

Edited by Katalin Kadar-Lynn

Publication Year: 2013

The National Committee for a Free Europe – which at one point changed its name to Free Europe Committee – was a US government sponsored organization between 1949 and 1971. Its mission was to wage “organized political warfare” against Soviet Expansionism, with Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty as the two most well known divisions. The NCFE and its anti-communist campaign remains one of the last aspects of U.S. Cold War policy that has not been thoroughly researched, and Cold War scholarship will not be complete until this history is made available. The essays in this book discuss the Bulgarian, Czechoslovakian, Hungarian, Polish, Romanian and Baltic States national committees, which were formed to lead the propaganda battle against the growth of world-wide communism, and which represented the U.S.-based exile leadership of those satellite nations. The primary sources of this research were the archival records of the two radio divisions, acquired by the Hoover Institution Archives at Stanford University in 2000.

Published by: Central European University Press

Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. i-iv

Contents

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pp. v-viii

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Preface

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pp. 1-6

Each of the essays in this volume focuses on an organization or activity that was funded through the National Committee for a Free Europe, Inc. (NCFE) during the war of ideas and ideals between the United States and the Soviet Union that came to be known as the Cold War...

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I: At War While at Peace: United States Cold War Policy and the National Committee for a Free Europe, Inc.

Katalin Kádár Lynn

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pp. 7-70

Sixty-eight years after the end of World War II, it seems fitting to begin to examine more thoroughly the other, more unconventional war, the psychological war for “men’s minds” that shortly was to follow the armistice. Termed the “Cold War”, it was fought with great intensity by all...

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II: History of the Council of Free Czechoslovakia

Francis D. Raška

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pp. 71-120

After the Communist takeover of the Czechoslovak government in February 1948, a large group of non-Communist Czechoslovak politicians sought exile in the West. A large proportion of them left their homeland out of a justified fear of Communist persecution. In fact, some...

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III: The History of the Romanian National Committee: 1947–1975

Marius Petraru

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pp. 121-198

After the fall of the Iron Curtain and of the Communist regime in Romania, most historians focused their attention on the history of Communism and on the Ceaușescu regime, but Romanian historiography has never addressed the subject of the Romanian government in exile after...

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IV: The Baltic Freedom Committees: Politics and Policies of an Exile Community

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pp. 199-236

When describing one of the methods of engaging in psychological warfare against the Soviet Union in 1948, the director of the State Department’s Policy Planning Staff, George F. Kennan, proposed that the United States should support the establishment of “liberation committees...

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V: The Hungarian National Council / Hungarian National Committee / Magyar Nemzeti Bizottmány / Magyar Nemzeti Bizottság 1947–1972

Katalin Kádár Lynn

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pp. 237-308

All of the national councils or émigré political groups that emerged in the West after their homelands were folded into the Soviet sphere of influence and became Soviet Satellites at the conclusion of World War II reflected the unique political history and circumstances of their respective...

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VI: Imre Kovács and Cold War Émigré Politicsin the United States (1947–1980)

Tibor Frank

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pp. 309-322

Born in 1913, author, journalist, political scientist, and politician Imre Kovács was of peasant stock and early on entered populist politics in interwar Hungary.1 In 1947 he left Hungary to spend the rest of his life in exile and in exile politics. Published in 1937, his celebrated A néma forradalom [The Silent Revolution...

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VII: The Schism within the Polish Delegation to the Assembly of Captive European Nations 1954–1972

Anna Mazurkiewicz

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pp. 323-362

Divisions, disagreements, bitter arguments among émigrés are as old as the history of emigration itself. Stefan Korboński, the most influential Polish representative in the Assembly of Captive European Nations (ACEN), pointed out in the third volume of his memoirs: “Essentially...

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VIII: Democracy in Exile: The Bulgarian National Committee and G.M. Dimitrov

Maria Kokoncheva

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pp. 363-396

Often, Eastern Europeans are hesitant to examine their Cold War history. Not only because it is still too personal for many but also because, in large part, we feel we have not yet written that piece of our history, and therefore it doesn’t really belong to us. During that time, on the...

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IX: The Relationship Between the Assembly of Captive European Nations and the Free Europe Committee in the Context of U.S. Foreign Policy, 1950–1960

Anna Mazurkiewicz

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pp. 397-438

Established in 1954, the Assembly of Captive European Nations (ACEN) was a U.S.-based organization of exiled East European leaders from Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland and Romania.1 According to its members, the ACEN functioned...

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X: The Free Europe University in Exile Inc. and the Collège de l’Europe libre (1951–1958)

Veronika Durin-Hornyik

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pp. 439-514

This essay briefly presents the history of the NCFE’s educational corporation called The Free Europe University in Exile Inc. (FEUE Inc.), based in New York, and its joint entity, the Collège de l’Europe libre (CEL), which operated in Strasbourg-Robertsau, France. Its aim is to...

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XI: The Cold War Activities of the Hungarian National Sports Federation

Toby C. Rider

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pp. 515-546

We may never know the full extent of the Free Europe Committee’s (FEC) activities during its nearly two decades in operation.2 The history of Radio Free Europe is considerable enough on its own, not counting the range of other groups that were touched in some way by one of...

Biographies

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pp. 547-552

Photo Gallery

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pp. 553-583

Photo Credits:

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pp. 584-

Index

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pp. 585-604

Back Cover

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E-ISBN-13: 9780985943318
Print-ISBN-13: 9780985943301

Page Count: 600
Illustrations: 30 pages photo gallery
Publication Year: 2013