The New Muscovite Cultural History
A Collection in Honor of Daniel B. Rowland
Publication Year: 2009
Published by: Slavica Publishers
Title Page, Frontispiece, Copyright
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List of Illustrations and Credits
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This volume could not have been published without the economic, logistical, technical, and moral support of dozens of people. The editors would first of all like to thank the University of Kentucky’s College of Arts and Sciences for generous support of the symposium on “The New Muscovite Cultural History” that took place at the University of Kentucky on 15–17 May 2008. Funding for the conference was also provided by the University of...
Daniel Rowland and Muscovite Cultural History
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It is hard to write a tribute to Dan Rowland, not for lack of attributes worthy of praise; rather the reverse. One is hard-pressed to narrow the scope or to decide where to begin. Irresistibly, one is drawn to the personal: Dan is a person of extraordinary warmth, kindness, modesty, and gentle humor, an encouraging, positive presence, and a humane influence in an academic world so often rife with competition and discord. Dan’s presence in the field has set a high...
Local Hero: Daniel Rowland’s Community Engagement
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A tribute to Dan Rowland that did not consider his impact outside of Muscovite history would be incomplete; indeed, one of the hallmarks of Dan’s career has been his community-building in the city of Lexington, at the University of Kentucky, and at the Gaines Center for the Humanities, which he directed for nearly a decade. Dan’s extraordinary humanity has helped create communities of thinkers among his colleagues, students, and the broader...
The Use and Abuse of Dominant Paradigms in Muscovite Cultural Studies
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Since its inception, the field of Russian Studies has inclined toward grand explanatory models.1 Orthodoxy, the Mongol Yoke, geographic determinism, or the swaddling thesis have all had their day in the sun. The Marxist-Leninist theory of history offers the most obvious of these meta-explanations for the contours of Russian history, but the tendency to endorse all-encompassing explanatory systems reaches far back in Russian history. Already in early modern...
Scenarios of Power
Muscovite Esther: Bride Shows, Queenship, and Power in The Comedy of Artaxerxes
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It is said that Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich sat “rapt and filled with wonder” for ten hours watching the performance of the first secular play ever staged in Russia, The Comedy of Artaxerxes.1 That performance on October 17, 1672, came only four months after the tsar had commissioned Johann Gottfried Gregorius, a Lutheran pastor resident in Moscow, to “stage a comedy” and to...
The Katapetasma of 1555 and the Image of the Orthodox Ruler in the Early Reign of Ivan IV
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Among the theories that arose in 16th-century Muscovy to define and strengthen the basis of the Russian tsar’s power none has evoked as much controversy as the idea “Moscow—the Third Rome.”1 The concept, which emerges in the writings of the Pskovite monk Filofei in the early 16th century, expresses the exclusive legitimate claim of the Russian tsar to rule the Orthodox world after the demise of the previous two Christian empires of Rome...
Golden Hall Iconography and the Makarian Initiative
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Three important articles by cultural historian Nikolai Andreev from the 1930s explored in greater depth than ever before the involvement and role of Metropolitan Makarii in the cultural initiatives of the 16th century in Muscovy, especially those associated with the reign of Ivan IV.1 From 1526, when he became archbishop of Novgorod, he was seen as a strong supporter of the Iosifite cause, allying himself staunchly with the powers-that-be in Moscow...
The Heavenly Host and the Sword of Truth:Apocalyptic Imagery in Ivan IV’s Muscovy
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In St. John’s Revelation, the Heavenly Host is the army of Christ that appears in the sky to defeat the armies of the Beast: “And I saw heaven opened, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon him was called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he doth judge and make war.… And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood.… And the armies which were in heaven followed him upon white horses, clothed in fine linen, white and clean” (Rev...
Religion and Power
The Culture of Ivan IV’s Court:The Religious Beliefs of Bureaucrats
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Until the 1960s no specialist in the history of the reign of Ivan IV in particular or of 16th-century Muscovy in general would have doubted the religious element in the life of the Muscovite Court. It was simply assumed that the Court, comprising the ruler, the boyars and other Duma ranks, and the highest d’iaki (secretaries), the bureaucrats who ran the Muscovite administrative apparatus, shared the religious ideology promulgated by the hierarchy and monasteries...
Whoever does not drink to the end, he wishes evil: Ritual Drinking and Politics in Early Modern Russia
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While in England in 1614, the Muscovite Ambassador Aleksei Ivanovich Ziuzin attended a dinner with several of the English nobility and courtiers. After his return to Russia, Ziuzin described the event in some detail and related the following incident...
The Theology in Avvakum’s Life and His Polemic with the Nikonians
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The Archpriest Avvakum included his autobiographical Life (Zhitie) among the polemics produced by the coexiles in Pustozersk against the upholders of Patriarch Nikon’s reforms (Nikonians).2 An understanding of the polemical function of Zhitie reveals a hidden poetic-theological agenda that elucidates the broader cultural significance of the Church crisis brought on by the...
Cultures of State, Cultures of Violence
Origins of Russian Royal Pretenderism
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While writing this essay I received a phone call from Colonel Michael O’Hara, a former student stationed at the U. S. Embassy in Moscow, who reported that recent DNA test results had proven conclusively that none of Tsar Nicholas II’s children survived the execution of the royal family in 1918.1 O’Hara asked me if that information would put an end to the long-held belief that Tsarevna Anastasiia or one of her siblings managed to survive the Revolution...
Torture in Early Modern Russia
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It is difficult to connect the work of Daniel Rowland with a topic as brutal as judicial torture. His exquisite studies of ideology and image depict a world of harmony, advice-giving, and spiritual uplift, a world far removed from the lash and hot pincers of the torture chambers. But the instruments of torture were wielded by the same ruling class that was immersed in the ideological world that Rowland describes, and the system they worked in represented...
Coerced Confessions, or If Tituba had been enslaved in Muscovy
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In 1692, in perhaps the most famous court case ever heard in colonial New England, a panel of judges tried to make sense of an outbreak of demonic possession in Salem, Massachusetts (actually current day Danvers). One of the critical witnesses in the case was Tituba Indian, slave woman of the controversial Reverend Samuel Parris. Tituba was the first of the accused to confess to witchcraft.1 The transcript of her testimony shows that she volubly acknowledged...
Archival and Textual Adventures
A Kansas Apocalypse:A Russian Manuscript and Its Vision of the Last Days
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The rare book collection of the University of Kansas, the Spencer Research Library, boasts a small number of Cyrillic manuscripts. One of these manuscripts, catalogued under the number MS C38, is a leather-bound book of 274 folia. The text is written in Russian Church Slavonic in an unskilled semiuncial hand (poluustav). The manuscript does not have a title page or contain an original title. The Spencer Research Library lists it under the title “John...
Nil Sorskii’s Following among the Iosifo-Volokolamsk Elders
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Scholarly studies in the course of the last five decades have shown that Nil Sorskii (1433/4–1508) and Iosif Volotskii (1439/40–1515) were allies, and that, accordingly, the earlier paradigm of their rivalry, based on the recently discredited “Pis’mo o neliubkakh inokov Kirillova i Iosifova monastyrei” of an anonymous author and on “Prenie s Iosifom” of Pseudo-Vassian Patrikeev, is unfounded.1 The fundamental hostility of these two leading ascetics of their...
Two Exiles: The Roots and Fortunes of Elie Denissoff, Rediscoverer of Mikhail Trivolis
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Few recent students of Muscovite history need to be reminded of the name and the work of Elie Denissoff. It was he who established Maksim Grek’s pre- Muscovite identity, convincingly tracing young Mikhail Trivolis’s path from Corfou to Italy to Mt. Athos in the period 1490–1516.1 Denissoff’s discoveries, quickly acknowledged in Western Europe,2 were first generally introduced to Soviet scholarship by Klibanov and Kashtanov in 1958,3 and they have firmly...
Ivan III, Nikolai Karamzin, and the Legend of the“Casting off of the Tatar Yoke” (1480)
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Dan Rowland sat tolerantly through my lectures roughly a quarter-century ago (in 1981–82), but I cannot claim him as a student by the dean’s reckoning. He is, rather, a Yalie (A.B., 1964; Ph.D., 1976) and a colleague with whom I have discussed our subject over subsequent years, as our friendship has grown. I wish on this occasion that I could offer some more relevant token of my respect for his own work by contributing something on a subject he has...
Regionalism, Ethnography, and Textual Geographies
Reworking the Tale:The Textual History of The Life of Mikhail of Klopsk
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Reflecting upon the attention given to the Life of Mikhail of Klopsk as a prominent example of the 15th-century Novgorodian contribution to the genre of saints’ lives, one comes to the conclusion that somewhat disproportionate weight has been placed on the “political message” of the document. Notably, many scholars seem to be preoccupied with pro-Muscovite tendencies allegedly exhibited in the work.1 This approach to some degree overshadowed the...
Images of the White Cowl
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Failed opposition movements are as complex as, and often more difficult to study than, the stories that the winners provide of their victories. The victors, as we know, write the history, relegating inconvenient evidence to the shredder while putting their own spin on the source testimony that remains. The losers generally have their story told for them by the winners. Being attuned to evidence of neglected areas or futile resistances of the past is part of the...
Religious Ideology and Chronicle Depictions of Muslims in 16th-Century Muscovy
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By the second half of the 16th century the ideological bases for the Muscovite realm and the authority of its ruler were well articulated. The ideology, formulated by Church hierarchs and bookmen, was rooted in religious tenets and expressed in religious terms.1 It proclaimed that the Muscovite realm was Christian Orthodox. It was protected by the Mother of God and an array of saints, some of whom, like Sergii of Radonezh and metropolitans Peter and...
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pp. Image 1-Image 36
Daniel Rowland’s Collected Bibliography
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Page Count: 350
Publication Year: 2009