Stones on the Prairie
Acculturation in Texas
Publication Year: 2007
Published by: Slavica Publishers
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We the contributors and editors gratefully dedicate this volume to Robert. O. Crummey, mentor, scholar, and friend. In his long career, Bob has enriched the field of Russian and Muscovite history in diverse ways, each characterized by his trademark intelligence, hard work, honesty, and great sense of humor. Each of the editors has benefited from his friendship and direct mentorship....
An Appreciation of Robert O. Crummey
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Bob Crummey belongs to a generation of American scholars of Muscovy that has made a truly extraordinary contribution to our knowledge of early modern Russia. Prof. Crummey’s remarkable corpus of published work, as well as his profound influence on his own students and on many others not officially under his academic care, clearly places him at the forefront of this remarkable...
Remembering Bob Crummey at Yale
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I first met Bob Crummey at Yale, where I pursued a doctorate in Russian history. Although the modern period attracted me, I studied with Bob at every opportunity and taught sections in his undergraduate surveys. He has had a profound influence on me as a scholar and a teacher....
Bibliography of Robert O. Crummey
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Rulers and Ruling Elites
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Redating the Life of Alexander Nevskii
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The time of composition of the Life of Alexander Nevskii has been generally accepted as the late 13th century, but the reasons for that acceptance need to be reexamined.1 Establishing the date of composition of the First Redaction of the Life is dependent on determining the relationship of it to chronicle ...
The Minority of Ivan IV*
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Ivan IV was born on August 25, 1530 (7038). His father, Vasilii III, died on December 3, 1533 (7042). Thus Ivan was three years and three months old when he became grand prince of Muscovy. Ivan’s minority lasted approximately fourteen years, ending no earlier than 1547 with his coronation as tsar and marriage when he was sixteen....
Architecture, Image, and Ritual in the Throne Rooms of Muscovy, 1550-1650: A Preliminary Survey
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This paper attempts to build on Robert Crummey’s work by exploring two themes that he has written about: rituals and the secular elite of Muscovy.1 As the title indicates, it is more of a quick survey than a scholarly discussion of a complex but important set of problems presented by Muscovy’s two main...
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The Privy Domain of Ivan Vasil'evich
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Colorful prose has been written, since Ivan’s own time, to describe his alleged creation, in December 1564, of “a state within a state,” commonly designated in English by the untranslated Russian term oprichnina. This ungraceful diction, like so much of our perception of Ivan, originated with the reports of early or contemporary European adventurers: Heinrich von Staden...
Gifts for Kith and Kin: Gift Exchanges and Social Integration in Muscovite Royal Weddings
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As Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich’s first wedding on September 19, 1624, was still being celebrated, a tableman (stol’nik) crossed the Kremlin’s Cathedral Square to Voznesenskii Convent, where the former wife of Tsar Vasilii Shuiskii (ruled 1606–10), Ekaterina/Mariia Petrovna Buinosova-‐‑Rostovskaia, had been living...
Marfa Ivanova and the Expansion of the Role of the Tsar's Mother in the 17th Century
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Amongst the royal women of Muscovite Russia in the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Marfa Ivanovna, the mother of the first Romanov tsar, Mikhail Fedorovich, stands out for her harsh treatment in historical literature. Previous tsaritsy, such as Mariia Grigor’evna Skuratova-‐‑Bel’skaia and Mariia...
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Основной обязанностью и одновременно привилегией лиц, имевших думный чин, являлось их участие в царском совете. Кроме того, они несли военную и гражданскую службы, совмещение которых было характерным для управленческого аппарата феодального государства....
The Roman Empire in the Era of Peter the Great
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In the reign of Peter the Great Russian conceptions of the nature of monarchical rule and the manner of presentation of the tsar to the elite and the common people changed fundamentally. The tsar had been a component in a fundamentally religious view of the world. Russians had not asked: is he bound...
Kamenev in Early NEP: The Twelfth Party Congress
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In the spring of 1923, Lev Kamenev’s position in the party appeared unassailable. As an intimate of Lenin in the years of exile, he had readily, despite early hesitations on his part in October and November 1917, moved into the highest echelons of power in the new Soviet state. By 1923 he was one of the...
Peter the Great in the Writings of Soviet Dissidents
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In every nation’s history there are figures who come to embody it. Whether because of their outsized personalities or the enormity of the actions they carried out, or through a combination of the two, such individuals transcend the period in which they lived and become timeless symbols of their country....
Monks and Old Believers
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Nil Sorskii and Prosvetitel'
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Prosvetitel’ (as it has come to be known)—Iosif Volotskii’s magnum opus against dissidents lumped together by him as the “Novgorod Heretics” and commonly called “Judaizers”—stands out as Old Russia’s most significant original comprehensive religious treatise. Strangely, it has never been...
Realization vs. Standard: Commemorative Meals in the Iosif Volotskii Monastery in 1566/67
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Those who work on the history of the Iosif Volotskii monastery 75 miles northwest of Moscow know the Eparkhial’noe sobranie (the Diocesan Collection) in the manuscript depository of the State Historical Museum at Moscow as one of the most important collections of relevant sources since it forms a part of the former library of that monastery, which was founded by Iosif...
Regarding the Good Order of the Monastery: The Tipik Solovetskago and the Integration of the Spiritual with the Temporal in the Early Seventeenth Century
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The desire to live a right life in order to attain salvation is best known in the medieval Christian tradition, both East and West, in the form of its monastic life. Ideally, a hermit alone in the wilderness or a monk engaged in the activity of a cloister led an ascetic, contemplative life of prayer, fasting, labor, and...
Ivan Neronov: A Priest Who Lost His Mind
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On January 31, 1632, Patriarch Filaret, the ruler of the Russian Orthodox Church, gave orders to arrest Ivan Neronov, parish priest of the Resurrection Church in Nizhnii Novgorod on the Volga River. Now accused of having “lost his mind and … not [being] in complete control of his thinking”...
Old Believers and the Soviet State in Riga, 1945-55
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In the past few years, our understanding of popular religious life in the Soviet Union has undergone a significant change. Once only the interest of émigré believers or militant atheists, Orthodoxy after 1917 is finally receiving sophisticated analysis by professional historians. The resultant picture is quite...
Rude & Barbarous Kingdom
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William Parry's Description of Tsar Boris Godunov's Pilgrimage to the Trinity-Sergius Monastery in May 1600
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On New Year’s Day 1588, William Parry set off as a member of an English mission conceived by Queen Elizabeth I’s sometime favorite the Earl of Essex and led by Sir Anthony Sherley. Its objective: to stir up trouble in Italy against the Catholic cause. Sherley (1565–1635?) was a notorious adventurer of the...
The Richest Place in the World: An Early 17th-Century English Description and Military Assessment of Solovetskii Monastery
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In The British National Archives at Kew is a curious, undated and unsigned document containing a unique and valuable description and military assessment of “the richest place this daie in the worlde,” the fortress-‐‑like Solovetskii (or Solovki) Monastery of the Transfiguration located in Russia’s far north on...
Icon-Painting in the Russian North: Evidence from the Antonievo-Siiskii Monastery*
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Foreigners entering the “rude and barbarous kingdom” of Muscovy along the great river road of the Northern Dvina passed within a few miles of the Antonievo-Siiskii Monastery, a remarkable cultural center of the Russian North that remained largely invisible to outside eyes. The community was...
Die Strasse in der Alltagswahrnehmung russischer Bauern des 17. Jahrhunderts
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Zum Bild des „Rude and barbarous kingdom“, welches die westeuropäischen Reiseberichte vom Moskauer Reich der frühen Neuzeit entwerfen,1 tragen ganz wesentlich die Modalitäten des Reisens2 bei: Endlose Naturstrassen, auf...
The King “Should Be but Imaginary”: The Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania in the Eyes of an English Diplomat, 1598
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Many of us were introduced to Robert Crummey’s work when we read Giles Fletcher and other English travelers in that memorably titled book, Rude and Barbarous Kingdom. Amidst his prodigious scholarship—ranging widely from boyar culture to Old Believer communities to the spirituality of Old Belief—...
The Soviet Role in the Creation of Israel Reconsidered
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Certainly one of the most enigmatic events of the 20th century was the role of the Soviet Union in the creation of the state of Israel. It made little sense in 1947, and with six decades of hindsight, it seems to have been an even less wise move on the part of the USSR. No one doubts that Soviet support was...
Some Remarks on Russian Intellectual History and the Origins of Eurasianism
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I received my doctorate from Oxford. The last stage of that quest consisted in the public defense of my dissertation on the Slavophiles, challenged by two official opponents, faculty members with whom, according to the rules of the procedure, I had not done any previous work. Max Beloff began by...
Culture, Law, Women, and War
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Pre-modern Russian miracle cycles contain many accounts of what might be termed “near-death experiences.” That is, they tell of situations where patients were “at the hour of death” (pri smertnom chasu), or “lay close to death” (lezha u smerti), or appeared “as though dying” (iaki umershu), or for whom...
Property among Elite Women in 17th-Century Russia
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In his landmark study of the 17th-‐‑century Russian elite, Robert Crummey observed that the families of the boyar elite were organized around men whose ancestors had founded patrilines and begun the accumulation of properties with which to sustain these lineages. But despite this orientation, he continued,...
Registering Land Titles in Muscovy
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The concept that there should be some public record of the transfer of land titles is an ancient one. In the book of Genesis, it is stated that Abraham purchased land from Ephron the Hittite for 400 shekels, and that the land was “deeded to Abraham as his property in the presence of all the Hittites who...
What Was Chernoknizhestvo? Black Books, Foreign Writing, and Literacy in Muscovite Magic
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On April 17, 1635, two brothers, the priest Druzhin and the priest Kondratii, sat in conversation at a social gathering, drinking brew (braga) at Cossack Khorlamka Mastiskov’s house. Having drunk themselves to the point of intoxication, as their neighbors testified they did on a regular basis, the two got...
Women and the Russian Military, 1650–1730: A Preliminary Survey
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“Soldiers alone do not make an army.”1 As military historians have long acknowledged, there is far more to an army than the combatants themselves; logistics, training, finances, propaganda, and recruitment are among the many topics that have received specialized study. A field that remains some-what...
News Sensations from the Front: Reportage in Late Muscovy concerning the Ottoman Wars
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This essay concerns the ways that awareness of the larger world may be shaped by news about current events and by retrospective historical memory. My inspiration is some Muscovite texts, by themselves probably insignificant, whose study raises broader issues about early modern cultural history. There is growing interest in how the emergence of the modern press helped create...
In the Crossfire of the Cold War: A Personal Note
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Thanks to a fellowship at Harvard University, by late 1958 I had almost completed research for the full-length biography I intended to produce on G. V. Plekhanov. In drafting the first few chapters, I found myself lacking some data on my subject’s early life, so I wrote to the administration of Dom Plekhanova requesting answers to a number of specific questions. At about the...
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Page Count: 431
Publication Year: 2007