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Aid and Ebb Tide

A History of CIDA and Canadian Development Assistance

David R. Morrison

Publication Year: 2011

Aid and Ebb Tide: A History of CIDA and Canadian Development Assistance examines Canada’s mixed record since 1950 in transferring over $50 billion in capital and expertise to developing countries through ODA. It focuses in particular on the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the organization chiefly responsible for delivering Canada’s development assistance. Aid and Ebb Tide calls for a renewed and reformed Canadian commitment to development co-operation at a time when the gap between the world’s richest and poorest has been widening alarmingly and millions are still being born into poverty and human insecurity.

Published by: Wilfrid Laurier University Press

Contents

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pp. v-vi

List of Tables and Figures

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pp. vii-viii

List of Acronyms

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pp. ix-xii

Chronology of Key Events

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pp. xiii-xvi

List of Ministers and Senior Officials

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pp. xvii-xviii

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Preface

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pp. xix-

The transfer of capital and expertise from industrial country donors to developing country recipients through Official Development Assistance (ODA) has been a noble but flawed means of promoting economic and social development and overcoming global poverty. The enterprise has had to contend with...

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1. Defining Canadian Development Assistance

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pp. 1-26

TThe Cold War and decolonization in Asia framed Canada's decision in 1950 to offer capital and technical assistance through the Colombo Plan for Co-operative Economic Development in South and Southeast Asia. Since then, Canada has disbursed over $50 billion in official development assistance (ODA) to countries in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, and...

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2. The Early Years, 1950-66

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pp. 27-56

Development assistance to the emerging Third World at first took a back seat to diplomacy and security in Canada's postwar international relations. The Cold War, fear of Soviet expansion, American leadership of the Western alliance, the decline of Britain, European reconstruction, NATO, the UN, and the Commonwealth defined the main...

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3. Maurice Strong and the Creation of CIDA, 1966-70

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pp. 57-98

The rapid growth in parliamentary appropriations for development assistance after 1963 and the strong, if qualified, commitment of Prime Minister Pearson (and later of Prime Minister Trudeau) to meet international aid targets opened the door in the late 1960s to unprecedented dynamism in both organizational and programming terms....

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4. Global Expansion and Growing Pains, 1970-77

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pp. 99-142

LLike his predecessor, Prime Minister Trudeau appointed a well-known public figure from outside the Ottawa establishment to head the aid program— Paul Gerin-Lajoie, one of the architects of Quebec's Quiet Revolution. The appointment simultaneously removed a strong nationalist from provincial politics, ensured vigorous...

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5. Retrenchment and Reorientation, 1977-80

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pp. 143-176

A former CIDA executive summarized his perspective on the organization's institutional history. Under Maurice Strong, it emerged as "a third player" in Canadian foreign policy alongside established interests in External Affairs and Industry,..

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6. Rethinking the Mission, 1980-83

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pp. 177-220

WW hen Marcel Masse became CIDA's fourth president in 1980, he inherited an Agency that was dispirited by retrenchment and mired in organizational infighting. Morale had been sapped as well by CIDA's declining relative autonomy within the bureaucracy...

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7. Multiple Mandates and Partners, 1983-89

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pp. 221-270

Margaret Catley-Carlson, CIDA's fifth president, assumed office when Western aid programs were in the doldrums. During her tenure from 1983 to 1989, she devoted enormous time and energy to enhancing support and participation from CIDA's main Canadian...

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8. A Jolt of Fresh Energy? ODA Policy Reviewed, 1984-89

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pp. 271-312

A fter Brian Mulroney's triumph in the federal election of 1984, the Tories were at last able to undertake the examination of Canada's aid program they had sought in opposition and been unable to complete during the shortlived Clark administration. The process...

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9. Shifting Gears, 1989-93

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pp. 313-368

M arcel Masse's second term as CIDA president from 1989 to 1993 was a time of turmoil within the Agency and uncertainty for Canadian ODA. Internationally, conventional wisdom about foreign aid was challenged by the fall of the Berlin Wall and the breakup...

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10. Ebb Tide, 1993-98

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pp. 369-424

C anadian ODA in 1992-93 was $2,972 million. The Estimates for 1997-98 projected a comparable figure of $2,146 million,1 and plans called for a further reduction in 1998-99. The ODA/GNP ratio, which stood at 0.49 per cent in 1991-92, plummeted to 0.34 per cent in...

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11. Explaining Canadian ODA

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pp. 425-452

A good deal of attention has been paid to the questions of why Canada has had, at least until recently, a substantial Canadian foreign aid program, what it is for, and what it should be for. Perceptions and prescriptions have been advanced to justify and broaden....

Appendices

A. Canadian Official Development Assistance: Selected Components, Total, and ODA/GNP Ratio, 1949-50 to 1996-97

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pp. 453-454

B. Percentage Distribution of Canadian Government-to-Government ODA by Region, Ten-Year Cumulative Totals, 1950-60, and Five-Year Cumulative Totals, 1960-95

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pp. 455-

C. Top Twenty Recipients of Canadian Government-to-Government ODA at Five-Year Intervals, 1960-61 to 1995-96

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pp. 456-460

D. Core/Category I and Non-Core/Category II Countries, 1978, 1981, 1986

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pp. 461-463

E. Publicly Financed Technical Assistance Personnel and Students and Trainees Supported by Canadian ODA, Five-Year Intervals, 1965-95

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pp. 464-

F. Canadian ODA: Proportion of DAC Effort and Comparative Standing, Five-Year Intervals, 1960-95

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pp. 465-

G. Percentage Distribution of All Attributable Country-to-Country Aid by Region, Canada and DAC Donors, 1970-71, 1980-81, and 1995-96

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pp. 466-

H. Percentage Distribution of Attributable Country-to-Country Aid by Country Income Level, Canada and All DAC Donors, 1970-71, 1980-81, and 1995-96

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pp. 467-

I. Canadian Multilateral ODA: Proportion of DAC Effort and Comparative Standing, Selected Years

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pp. 468-

Notes

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pp. 469-586

Index

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pp. 587-602


E-ISBN-13: 9780889206755
Print-ISBN-13: 9780889203044

Page Count: 624
Publication Year: 2011