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The Time Use of Mothers in the United States at the Beginning of the 21st Century

Rachel Connelly and Jean Kimmel

Publication Year: 2011

Basing their analysis on the American Time Use Survey, Connelly and Kimmel delve into the time use of mothers of preteenaged children in the United States and connect their time uses with their childrens development. This leads to interesting findings that should inform policymakers addressing issues related to taxation, education, and child care subsidies.

Published by: W.E. Upjohn Institute

Title page

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pp. i-iii

Copyright page

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pp. iv


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pp. v


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pp. vii-xi


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pp. xiii

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Ch 1 - Introduction

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pp. 1-12

One point of consensus regarding young children is that they consume a substantial portion of the time in a parent’s day. Newborn babies must be cared for 24 hours a day. Yes, infants sleep, but the sleep is unpredictable and intermittent. As they age over those first few years...

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Ch 2 - A Descriptinve Look at Mothers' Time Use

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pp. 13-48

In the previous chapter, we briefly described the ATUS data. In this chapter, we describe the data collection effort in much more detail. Then, we begin to explore the data by looking at the time use of mothers in the United States. We consider how this time use varies by weekend...

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Ch 3 - The Nature of Maternal Caregiving: Is It More Like Leisure or Household Production?

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pp. 49-78

The previous chapter provides a descriptive portrait of maternal time use in five aggregate uses categories: 1) home production, 2) caregiving, 3) leisure, 4) paid market work, and 5) other. In this chapter, we extend that analysis by relying on rigorous econometric techniques...

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Ch 4 - Husbands' Influences on Mothers' Unpaid Time Choices

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pp. 79-94

Among the key results from the previous chapter are the importance of marital status and spousal income on mothers’ time use. Being married or cohabiting increases home production time on both weekdays and weekends and increases employment and reduced caregiving...

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Ch 5 - The Role of Nonstandard Work Hours in Maternal Caregiving

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pp. 95-120

In our analysis of mothers’ time use, we have concentrated on the total minutes of time devoted to aggregated time categories. In Chapter 3, one of the four aggregate time categories considered is employment time on the diary day. In Chapter 4, employment time again plays a role...

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Ch 6 - Concluding Remarks

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pp. 121-134

Time is our most scarce resource and children our most precious. Raising children, especially young children, is inherently time intensive for parents, especially for mothers, who in every country serve as primary caregivers for most children. We refer to the child-rearing time...

Appendix A: ATUS Time Use Categories Included in Five Aggregate Time Uses

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pp. 135-138

Appendix B: The Categorization of Time as Child Caregiving According to the ATUS Survey Coding Rules

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pp. 139-140

Appendix C: Methods Used to Construct Price of Time Variables

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pp. 141-142

Appendix D: Theoretical Model Used in Chapter 4

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pp. 143-144


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pp. 145-154

The Authors

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pp. 155-156


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pp. 157-164

About the Institute

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pp. 165

E-ISBN-13: 9780880993975
E-ISBN-10: 0880993979
Print-ISBN-13: 9780880993685
Print-ISBN-10: 0880993685

Page Count: 165
Publication Year: 2011

Edition: First