Great Basin Indians
An Encyclopedic History
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: University of Nevada Press
Title Page, Copyright
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cont e nt s
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p r e f a c e
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This book is an encyclopedic history of the Indians of the Great Basin, incorporating the fruits of several generations of scholarship as well as recent discoveries made possible by new areas of scientific inquiry. There have been many important discoveries in anthropology and other fields relative to Native American history over the past three decades that have not yet made their way from the specialized journals into the general literature. Moreover, new approaches to the study of Native Americans made possible ...
i ntroduc t i on
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Before going headfirst into the individual entries, it would seem wise to offer an over-view of the Great Basin, and what better way to start than with the elegant metaphor If you were to place your right hand on a map of these western United States palm down, and so that your pinky touches Salt Lake City adjoining the Wasatch Moun-tains in Utah, then by splaying it, your thumb (on the scale of one-inch equaling fifty miles) will cover the “Biggest Little City in the World,” Reno, Nevada, nestled ...
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AAcorn Complex. Forests of Quercus, Latin for the genus oak, are found in the western, southern, and eastern mountains of the Great Basin, but the acorn, the seed of this conifer, was a staple food only for the Washoe. According to their through relay teams to settlements in Washoe country. First, the outer shell had to be cracked open—on flat stone anvils with hammer stones. Next, to render acorn edible, they removed the reddish skin covering by sprinkling it with water, and then acorns were winnowed in another basket. When they finally dried, acorns were pul-...
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B Bannock. The Bannock, according to Brigham Madsen (1958), Liljeblad (1972), and Murphy and Murphy (1980, 1986), were a Northern Paiute subgrouping whose territory was south of the Salmon River in southern Idaho. Whereas Major Pow-The name of these Great Basin Indians, according to Sven Liljeblad (1972), de -rives from a term employed by and for them: Panaite. Gregory Smoak (2006, 16) writes that it is an Anglicization of panakwate. Liljeblad (1972) also writes that the Bannock were called wihinakwate by related Shoshone, that is, “Those on the ‘Iron’ ...
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C Cap, Paddy (Northern Paiute, ca. 1840–1890). Paddy Cap was eventually imprisoned at the Yakima Reservation in the state of Washington along with other Northern Paiute for participation in two early important Great Basin Indian nock War). Previously named after waada (Suaeda depressa), an important seed, some of these Wada-duka or “Wada-Eaters” from the lake region near Burns, Oregon (see Northern Paiute; O. Stewart 1939), became followers of Paddy Cap. His exact role in the first of those wars is not yet known. Following the peace treaty concluded ...
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DDadokoyi (Washoe, ca. 1820–ca. 1904). Dadokoyi—Big Heels—was among the first early postcontact Washoe leaders (see Gumalanga; Jim, Captain). Born in the northern part of their territory (see Washoe), he report-tion to speaking this non-Uto-Aztecan language (see Hokan), Dadokoyi reportedly was fluent in not only Northern Paiute and Maidu (a California Indian Hokan-Among his activities, Dadokoyi went to Sutter’s Fort, California, to represent the Washoe when rumors circulated that the American president, Millard Fillmore, was ...
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EEl Gran Teguayo. “El Gran Teguayo” was believed by Spanish conquistadores to be the land of fabulous wealth (Cline 1963). Thought to exist north of Mexico in the United States, this fantasy no doubt was fueled by the fantastic Moctezuma,” which supposedly was located north of central Mexico in the equally mythical Aztlán, the very opposite direction from which Aztecs originally claimed to have migrated (south) before building their own empire. El Gran Teguayo, in any event, was also thought to lie within proximity of Teguayo, or “Copala,” a large lake, ...
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FFort Rock Cave. Luther Sheeleigh Cressman’s excavation of rock shelters in southwestern Oregon between 1935 and 1938 revolutionized our thinking about the earliest his-tory of Native Americans not only in the Great Basin, but an absolute dating technique also called radiocarbon dating, which was applied to several of those dozens of spiral-weft and multiple-warp woven sagebrush sandals Cressman (1951) reported tied in pairs in “Cow Cave” on the Menkemeir Ranch, beneath a mantle of volcanic ash left over from Mount Mazama’s eruption seventy-six ...
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G Gatecliff Shelter. Excavated by David Thomas, Gatecliff Shel-ter, in the Toquima Mountains of central Nevada, is a deeply stratified archaeological site found at the elevation of 2,139 meters within the pinyon-juniper range just east of Austin in Monitor Valley. This important site is said to contain “five discrete Middle Holocene archaeological ‘sites’ (stacked one carbon dates from fire hearths at Gatecliff Shelter establish its initial occupation at An outgrowth of the Reese River Valley Project, the back story of Gatecliff Shelter ...
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H Harnar, Nellie Shaw (Northern Paiute, 1905–85). Nellie Shaw Harnar was born in Wadsworth, Nevada, a Central Pacific Railroad stop that became alienated land from the Pyramid Lake Reservation. One of nine children born to took her to the Normal Training Course at the Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas. Then after obtaining a baccalaureate in early education in 1936 at Northern Arizona University in Flagstaff, Shaw earned a master’s degree in education from the Uni-versity of Nevada in Reno. Despite her long career as a dedicated Bureau of Indian ...
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I Ignacio (Ute, 1844–1913). Ignacio, a.k.a. John Lyon, was among a handful of Ute “chiefs” who rose to prominence when Spain’s hegemony over Great Basin Indians shifted to (independent) Mexico in 1821, and then the United States Roman Catholic priest. Physically imposing at six foot two and 225 pounds, Ignacio belonged to the Weenimuche band (see Ute). Though perhaps an exaggeration, he reportedly killed one dozen members of a single family while avenging his father’s Ignacio’s rise to power followed the death of an earlier Ute chief (see Ouray). As ...
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J Jake, Clifford (Southern Paiute, 1919–2009). Clifford Jake joined the Native American Church on the Uintah-Ouray Reservation in Utah in 1946 (see Peyote Religion). Nearly a quarter century after having served as a road chief, the World ary who has also led peyote services on other Great Basin Indian reservations, Jake divulged to Omer Stewart the following miracle that took place in 1974 during his pilgrimage to the Peyote Gardens in Texas, where one might purchase this cactus plant ingested during all-night meetings of the neotraditionalist religion....
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K Kanosh (Ute/Southern Paiute, 1828?–84). Kanosh was born to a Ute father (Kashe Bats) and native California woman (Wah-Goots) (H. Lewis 2003, 333–34). Formally edu-cated in a Spanish Catholic mission in Southern California, “Brigham is the great Captain of all, for he does not get mad when he hears of his brothers and friends being Killed, as the California Captains do,” the Pahvant band member (see Southern Paiute) was quoted as saying (Peter-son 1998, 151). In strict conformity too with the Mormon Church’s early distrust of ...
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L Laird, George (Southern Paiute, 1871–1940). George Laird was the son of an indigenous Chemehuevi (see Southern Paiute) woman and part-Cherokee father from Tennessee. Following the death of his parents, Laird in turn lived with zona. Claiming that his interest in Chemehuevi culture and language was aroused while caring for a dying relative, he was subsequently hired as a consultant by the linguist J. M. Harrington, who was studying this Southern Numic language (see Uto-Aztecan). After Harrington dispatched a student he had married to collect additional ...
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M Malotte, Jack Richard (Washoe/Shoshone, 1953–). Jack Richard Malotte grew up on the Walker River Reservation in Nevada. After attending the California College of Arts and Crafts in Oakland from 1971 to 1974, where he earned a fine temporary Indian politics. A pencil-and-ink lithographic titled tem, the Carter administration’s proposal to create a railroad system in Nevada car-rying twenty-three hundred ready-to-fire nuclear weapons on flatbed boxcars, which also carried dummies in an effort to deceive Russian satellite-tracking systems, an ...
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N NAGPRA. NAGPRA is the acronym for the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. Enacted on Novem-ber 16, 1990, by Congress (HR 5237, PL 101-601, 43 CFR 10.9), and signed into law by President George H. W. Bush, mandates that “any institution or State or local government agency,” including higher learning, though excepting the Smithsonian Institution, that receives federal funds and owns or controls Native American “cultural items” must “compile an inventory,” so that their “geographical and cultural affiliations(s)” can be determined; the latter ...
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OOld Spanish Trail. Gloria Cline writes that the Old Spanish Trail was “the first chartered track across the Great Basin” (1963, 166). Named by John Charles Frémont, this impor-tant twelve-hundred-mile Great Basin roadway began as ties in Alta California (for example, Los Angeles). Accessible from the springtime through the fall, the Old Spanish Trail, consequently, coursed parts of what became four western American states in the Great Basin, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, and Cali-fornia, and extensions thereof into two others, New Mexico and Arizona. Never really ...
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P Paleo-Indians (13,000–9000 BP). Consistent with the ex -citing fact that archaeologists continue to push back the date of the earliest human beings in the New World—the oldest known occupation in the Americas being from the Monte fluted points associated with mammoth at Owl Cave in southern Idaho whose bone collage renders dates between 12,900 and 10,900 years ago. And at the Sunshine Locality in Long Valley, northwest of Ely, Nevada, an archaeological site placed in 1978 on the National Register of Historic Places, Beck and Jones (2008) report the ...
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RRed Cap (Northern Ute, 1870?–1950?). Red Cap was also known as Andrew Frank and Captain Perank. He led the protest of between 345 and 600 fellow Northern Ute off the Uintah-Ouray Reservation in 1906 against the priva-have said [in opposition]. . . . This is for your best interests. If your consent is not obtained, the land will be allotted nevertheless” (C. Wright and Wright 1948, 334).Two additional issues prompted the protest: the expropriation of 1.1 million acres of reservation land by President Grover Cleveland for the Uinta National Forest in ...
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S Sacajawea (Shoshone, 1788–1812?/1884?). Sacajawea, or Sok-a-jaw-a, means “Someone Who Pushes the Boat Away from the Land” in Shoshone. But in Hidatsa, the unrelated Plains Indian language she also spoke, the name of this epic journey of Lewis and Clark (1804–6) is translated as Bird Fish-Eaters (Agaidukada) (see Shoshone), Sacajawea was captured by the Hidatsa at age twelve during a raid in 1800 at Three Forks, Montana, while gathering choke-cherries. Given over then to a family to replace their own child killed in war, she was ...
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T Temoke Kin Clique. Historically speaking, the first known Western Shoshone named Temoke—“the Rope”—was de -scribed as a “friend of the Dog-faced people,” that is, whites. He, along with “Buck,” Po-ongo-sah, as well as other early Tim-oak,” as he was called by Major Powell and S. W. Ingalls, federally appointed Indian agents sent to Nevada in 1873 to relocate nonreservation Great Basin Indians onto the “Muddy” or Moapa Reservation in the southern part of the state, led 172 Western Shoshone in Ruby Valley, Nevada (S. Crum 1994a, 35). ...
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U Ute. If, according to Alan Reed, the “question of Ute ori-gins remains unresolved” (1994, 189), the earliest historical mention of any Great Basin Indian group referencing these Southern Numic speakers called Nutc (see Uto-Aztecan) was to their territory, which he claimed as the northern frontier of Spain’s empire in the New World. Coronado’s failed adventure of the fabled “Seven Lost Cities of Cibola” (see El Gran Teguayo) notwithstanding, Juan de Onate would also encounter the Ute in 1604 during his subsequent search ...
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WWakara (Tumpanawach Ute, 1815?–55). Wakara (Wac-cara) in Southern Numic (see Uto-Aztecan) is translated as “yellow,” a name believed to derive from his pecuniary interests in the white man’s gold. But he was also called ently as “Wacker,” “Walkarum,” and others (R. Walker 2002, 215–16). Walker’s War was the name of one of the earliest conflicts in Great Basin Indian postcontact his-tory and named after the notorious Ute. The other name of this notorious Ute slaver, Pan-a-karry Quin-ker, “Iron Twister,” was supposedly obtained when he was approx-...
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Y Yellow Hand (Comanche, ca. 1760–1837?). Yellow Hand (Ohamagwaya) is believed to have introduced among Great Basin Indians what arguably is the most famous of all North American Indian religions (see Sun Dance). Afflicted with Hand reportedly sought supernatural guidance at a powerful pictographic locale (see Booha; Sacred Sites). The result was an encounter with a guardian-type spirit, an old man, who bestowed on him the charter for what became Yellow Hand’s version of the Sun Dance, that is, a set of ritual instructions from White Buffalo that, for ...
b i b l i ogr a phy
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Aberle, David F. 1966. The Peyote Religion Among the Navaho. Chicago: University of Adams, Eleanor B. 1986. “Fray Francisco Atanasio Dominguez and Fray Francisco Sil-vestre Velez de Escalate.” Utah Historical Quarterly 44: 40–58.Adovasio, J. M. 1970. “The Origin, Development, and Distribution of Western Archaic Textiles.” Tebiwa: Journal of the Idaho State University Museum 13: 1–40....
i n d e x
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Note: Italicized pages refer to maps. Bold pages refer to encyclopedic entries....
Page Count: 352
Illustrations: 11 maps
Publication Year: 2013