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History of the Ojibway People, Second Edition

William W. Warren

Publication Year: 1984

William W. Warren's History of the Ojibway People has long been recognized as a classic source on Ojibwe History and culture. Warren, the son of an Ojibwe woman, wrote his history in the hope of saving traditional stories for posterity even as he presented to the American public a sympathetic view of a people he believed were fast disappearing under the onslaught of a corrupt frontier populaton. He collected firsthand descriptions and stories from relatives, tribal leaders, and acquaintances and transcribed this oral history in terms that nineteenth-century whites could understand, focusing on warfare, tribal organizations, and political leaders. First published in 1885 by the Minnesota Historical Society, the book has also been cirticized by Native and non-Native scholars, many of whom do not take into account Warren's perspective, goals, and limitations. Now, for the first time since its initial publication, it is made available with new annotations researched and written by professor Theresa Schenck. A new introduction by Schenck also gives a clear and concise history of the text and of the author, firmly establishing a place for William Warren in the tradition of American Indian intellectual thought.

Published by: Minnesota Historical Society Press

title page

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copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-vi

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Introduction

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pp. vii-xxiv

William W. Warren’s History of the Ojibway People is one of the earliest and most influential books ever written about the people also known as the Chippewa.1 It has long been recognized as a classic source of Ojibwe history and culture, a unique and valuable contribution...

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Preface

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pp. 3-8

The red race of North America is fast disappearing before the onward resistless tread of the Anglo - Saxon. Once the vast tract of country lying between the Atlantic sea - board and the broad Mississippi, where a century...

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1 General Account of the Present Local Position and Numbers of the Ojibways, and Their Connection with Other Tribes

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pp. 9-16

Before entering into the details of their past history, it is necessary that the writer should give a brief account of the present position and numbers of the Ojibways, and the connection existing between them and other tribes...

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2 Totemic Division of the O-jib-ways

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pp. 17-25

There is nothing so worthy of observation and study, in the peculiar customs and usages of the Algic type of the American aborigines, as their well - defined partition into several grand clans or families. This stock comprises a large group of tribes...

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3 Origin of the Ojibways

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pp. 26-41

I am fully aware that many learned and able writers have given to the world their opinions respecting the origin of the aboriginal inhabitants of the American Continent, and the manner in which they first obtained a footing...

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4 Emigration of the Ojibways from the Shores of the Atlantic Ocean, to Their Occupation of the Area of Lake Superior

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pp. 42-57

The history of the Ojibway tribe, till within the past five centuries, lies buried in darkness and almost utter oblivion. In the preceding chapter we have feebly attempted to lift the veil which covers their past, by offering...

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5 The Ojibway Town at La Pointe

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pp. 58-66

In the previous chapter we have gradually traced the Ojibways from the Atlantic coast, to their occupation of the surrounding shores of Lake Superior. Computing their generations as consisting of forty years each, it is three hundred and sixty years since the main body of this tribe first reached...

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6 Dispersion of the Ojibways from the Island of La Pointe

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pp. 67-70

For the space of three generations, or one hundred and twenty years, the Ojibways remained congregated on the island of La Pointe, in one extensive town.1 At the end of this period, we come to a dark chapter of their history, on...

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7 Era of the Discovery

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pp. 71-80

The era of their first knowledge of, and intercourse with the white race, is one of the most vital importance in the history of the aborigines of this continent. So far as their own tribe is concerned, the Ojibways have preserved accurate and detailed accounts of this event; and the information which...

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8 The Immediate Consequence of Their First Intercourse with the White Race

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pp. 81-89

We have now come to that period in their history, when the important consequences of their discovery and intercourse with the white race began to work their effects upon the former even, monotonous, and simple course...

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9 Account of the First French Trading Posts Built on Lake Superior

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pp. 90-96

A few years after the great convocation of northwestern tribes, and treaty with the French nation at Sault Ste. Marie, a company of French traders proceeded up the west coast of Lake Superior, and built a trading post or...

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10 Wars of the Ojibways with the Iroquois and O-dug-am-ees, or Foxes

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pp. 97-103

Besides carrying on an inveterate and exterminating warfare with the power - ful Dakotas and cruel Foxes, the Ojibways were obliged to keep up their ancient feud with the Naudoways, or Iroquois, towards the east. For a time...

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11 Taking of Mille Lacs by the Ojibways

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pp. 104-109

Mille Lacs, the M’dé Wakan, or Spirit Lake of the Dakotas, and the Missi-sa-i -egan or “the lake that spreads all over” of the Ojibways, is one of the largest and most beautiful sheets of water in Minnesota Territory. It lies...

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12 Occupation of the St. Croix River Country by the Ojibways

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pp. 110-118

After the sanguinary battle which resulted in the total evacuation of Mille Lacs by the Dakotas, the ancient feud between them and the Ojibways raged with great fury, and it is at this period that the latter tribe first began...

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13 The Country about the Source of the Mississippi

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pp. 119-124

The region of country from which the Mississippi derives its source, is covered with innumerable fresh and clear water lakes, connected with one another, and flowing into the “Father of Rivers” through rapid and meandering...

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14 Progress of the Ojibways on the Upper Mississippi

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pp. 125-129

The band or village of the Ojibways, who had dispossessed the Dakotas of Sandy Lake, under the guidance of their chief Bi - aus - wah, continued to receive accessions to their ranks from the shores of Lake Superior, and continued to gain ground on the Dakotas, till they forced them...

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15 Occupation of the Wisconsin and Chippewa River Valleys by the Ojibways

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pp. 130-133

That portion of the present State of Wisconsin, comprising the valleys of the Chippeway and Wisconsin rivers, and the country watered by their numerous tributaries, have been occupied by a large section of the Ojibway tribe, for the past century. The beautiful inland lakes from which...

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16 Ending of the French Supremacy

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pp. 134-145

We have now brought forward the history of the different sections of the Ojibway tribe, to the time when the French nation were forced to strike their colors and cede their possessions in America (comprising the great...

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17 Commencement of British Supremacy

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pp. 146-154

That portion of the Ojibways, forming by far the main body of the tribe, who occupied the area of Lake Superior, and those bands who had already formed distinct villages on the headwaters of the Mississippi and its principal...

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18 Grand Expedition of the Dakotas to the Sources of the Mississippi, against the Ojibways

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pp. 155-163

After having given, in the two preceding chapters, a summary account respecting the affairs of the Ojibways, attendant on the change from the French to the British supremacy, we will once more return to the northwestern...

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19 Progress of the Ojibways on the Upper Mississippi

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pp. 164-168

In order to retaliate on the Dakotas the invasion which they had made on the Upper Mississippi, which resulted in the battle of Crow Wing, and the capturing of their women at Sandy Lake, the Ojibways, early the following...

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20 Closing of the War between the Ojibways and Odugamies

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pp. 169-179

The Odugamies (Foxes), who had been forced by the Ojibways during the French domination to retire from the Wisconsin and Fox Rivers to the Mississippi, had, under the guardianship of the Osaugees, partially regained...

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21 Origin of the Distinctive Name of Pillagers Applied to the Leech Lake Band of Ojibways; and Era of the Smallpox

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pp. 180-184

In the year 1781, the large band of the Ojibways, who had taken possession of Leech Lake (one of the principal sources of the Mississippi), became for the first time known by the distinctive appellation of “Pillagers,” Muk-im-...

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22 Continued Progress of the Ojibways on the Upper Mississippi during the End of the Eighteenth Century

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pp. 185-193

As beaver, and the larger animals, such as buffalo, elk, deer, and bear, decreased in the immediate vicinity of Leech and Sandy Lakes, the hardy bands of Ojibways who had taken possession of these beautiful sheets of...

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23 Attack of a War Party of Dakotas on a French Trading House, on the Upper Mississippi, in the Year 1783

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pp. 194-196

Esh-ke-bug-e-coshe, the old chieftain of the Pillagers, who is now beyond his seventieth year, relates that when he was a small boy, not yet able to handle a gun, he was present at a trading house located at the confluence...

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24 The Sources of the Mississippi Become Open to the Enterprise of the Fur Trade, 1792

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pp. 197-204

The great Basin covered with innumerable lakes and streams, from which the Mississippi, flowing into the Gulf of Mexico, and Red River, flowing into Hudson’s Bay, take their rise, was first fully opened to the enterprise...

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25 John Baptiste Cadotte

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pp. 205-210

John Baptiste Cadotte returned to Montreal from his northwestern expedition, and soon expended in dissipation the profits on the large return of furs he had made. He became, moreover, so deeply indebted to Alexander...

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26 Progress of the Ojibways on the Wisconsin and Chippeway Rivers

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pp. 211-223

We have now arrived at a period in the history of the Ojibways, which is within the remembrance of aged chiefs, half - breeds, and traders still living amongst them; and we can promise our readers that but few occurrences...

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27 Ojibways of the Wisconsin and Chippeway Rivers

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pp. 224-232

Among the different bands of the Ojibways, occupying the country drained by the currents of the Wisconsin and Chippeway Rivers, something like a regular system of governmental polity existed at this time.1The...

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28 Affairs of the Ojibways on the St. Croix

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pp. 233-239

During the middle and latter part of the eighteenth century, the hunting camps of the Dakotas and Ojibways often met on either bank of the St. Croix River, as far down as the Falls. Spots are pointed out, on Sunrise,...

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29 The Pillagers

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pp. 240-245

Notwithstanding the continual drain made in their ranks by their inveterate and exterminating war with the Dakotas, the large band of the Ojibways who lived on Leech Lake, and had become known by the name of Pillagers,...

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30 Ojibways of the Upper Mississippi

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pp. 246-250

We will once more return to the division of the Ojibways, who had made their homes on the waters forming the sources of the Mississippi River. It has already been related how, in the year 1782, the village of Sandy Lake...

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31 Ojibways of the Upper Mississippi

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pp. 251-255

Half a century since, there flourished as one of the principal leaders of the Ojibway warriors on the Upper Mississippi, a man whose name was Waub - o - jeeg, or White Fisher (namesake to the celebrated chief who, eighty years...

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32 Ojibways of the Upper Mississippi

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pp. 256-263

The year after the battle at Long Prairie, the Dakotas, along the whole line of their eastern frontiers, made an unusual attempt to enter into a general peace with the Ojibways. Shappa (the Beaver), head chief of the Yankton...

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33 Endeavors of the British to Entice the Ojibways of Lake Superior and Mississippi to Join Their Arms in the War of 1812

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pp. 264-271

It has been a general impression throughout the United States, that the Ojibways, as a tribe, fought under the flag of Great Britain, during the war of 1812. It is not so; and it can be stated as a fact, that of the nine thousand...

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34 A Brief Sketch of the Fur Trade and Fur Traders among the Ojibways from the Formation of the Northwest Company in 1787 to 1834

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pp. 272-279

Among the first traders who pushed their enterprise to the villages of the Ojibways on Lake Superior, after France had ceded the Canadas to Great Britain, the names of Alexander Henry and the Cadottes appear most conspicuous...

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35 Events from 1818 to 1826

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pp. 280-286

For several years after the closing of the last war between Great Britain and the United States, no event of sufficient importance to deserve record, occurred to the Ojibways. Their warfare continued with the Dakotas, but...

appendixes

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pp. 287-298

works cited

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pp. 299-306

Index

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pp. 307-318


E-ISBN-13: 9780873517614
E-ISBN-10: 087351761X
Print-ISBN-13: 9780873511629
Print-ISBN-10: 087351162X

Page Count: 448
Publication Year: 1984

Edition: 2