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On the eve of conquest

the Chevalier de Raymond's critique of New France in 1754

Charles de Raymond

Publication Year: 1997

In 1754, Charles de Raymond, chevalier of the Royal and Military Order of Saint Louis and a captain in the Troupes de la Marine wrote a bold, candid, and revealing expose; on the French colonial posts and settlements of New France. On the Eve of the Conquest, more than an annotated translation, includes a discussion on the historical background of the start of the French and Indian War, as well as a concise biography of Raymond and Michel Le Courtois de Surlaville, the army colonel at the French court to whom the report was sent. The events surrounding Raymond's controversial year as commandant of the post (now Fort Wayne, Indiana) in 1749-50, his disputed recall by Governor General Jacques-Pierre de Taffanel de La Jonquier, and the subsequent friction between La Jonquiere's successor, Ange de Menneville Duqesne, and Raymond are presented in detail and illustrated by translations of their correspondence.  
 

Published by: Michigan State University Press

Contents

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p. v-v

List of Maps

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p. vi-vi

List of Illustrations

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p. vii-vii

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Foreword

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pp. ix-x

Bend jointly began the French Michilimackinac Research Project in 1991. Since then Dr. Joseph L. Peyser, Professor Emeritus of French at the university, has located thousands of French documents pertaining to Michilimackinac and the western Great Lakes and translated hundreds of A grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities made ...

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Acknowledgments

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pp. xi-xii

I am grateful to the organizations and institutions identified in the foreword of this book for having provided the funds needed for the translation, editing, annotation and publication of Charles de Raymond's denombrement. Among the many individuals in these and other institutions who facilitated my work are the following: Keith R. Widder, Curator ...

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Part I: Introduction

CHARLES DE RAYMOND In 1754 the French and English in North America stood at the brink of a major conflict, the French and Indian War, that would forever alter the cultural and political landscape of the continent. Charles de Raymond, a captain in the Troupes de fa Marine, the French colonial regular troops, had served in New France for 32 years. Frustrated ...

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A. Charles de Raymond

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pp. 1-7

...brink of a major conflict, the French and Indian War, that would forever alter the cultural and political landscape of the continent. Charles de Raymond, a captain in the Troupes de fa Marine, the French colonial regular troops, had served in New France for 32 years. Frustrated in his efforts to win promotion or a choice frontier post where he could engage in the ...

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B. Description of Raymond’s Enumeration of all the Canadian Posts

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pp. 8-11

...correspond with each other, and this correspondence included the Raymond's Enumeration if all the Canadian posts, sent to Surlaville in 1754, a crucial moment in North American colonial history, provides a remarkably candid and detailed report on and recommendations for New France on the eve of the Seven Years' War. From the report it is evident ...

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C . Historical Background to 1754

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pp. 12-28

...these three documents is now housed in the research library of Mackinac In 1713 the Treaty of Utrecht ended both the War of the Spanish Succession in Europe (1702-13) and its North American phase, Queen Anne's War, which had pitted France and England against each other. The treaty, which ushered in a 30-year period of peace between the two ...

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D. Topical Outline of Raymond’s Enumeration Notes

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pp. 29-42

The structure of Raymond's report is outlined here, providing the reader with a table of contents. In Part IV of this book, an analysis is made of what Surlaville deleted, retained, and rephrased in his memoire. In the analysis, ...

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Part II: About the Translation

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pp. 43-46

Raymond's writing in his denombrement is in many respects quite typical of eighteenth-century writings by officers of the Troupes de la Marine in Canada. The fact that the "original" is in this case actually a beautifully penned copy made in 1754 by a professional writer virtually eliminates problems arising from poor handwriting. Even so, I had to be ...

Notes

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pp. 46-47

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Part III: Annotated Translation of Le d

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pp. 49-118

I must satisfy you, then, my dear sur La ville [Surlaville], 1 and give you as you wish the enumeration of all the posts of Canada, the places where they are located, those where the king keeps garrisons which are the keys to the country, those that are trading posts, the present upkeep of the garrisons, the posts, the commanders of these various posts, what can be ...

Notes

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pp. 119-140

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Part IV: Comparative Analysis of Raymond’s and Surlaville’s Reports

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pp. 141-147

For the reader who wishes systematically to compare the content of Surlaville's report with that of Raymond's enumeration (see pages 30-32 for the topical outline of the latter's denombrement), a topical outline of The most obvious differences between Raymond's and Surlaville's memoires are the disparities in length (Surlaville's is shorter by one-third) ...

Notes

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p. 147-147

Appendix 1: Topical Outline of Surlaville’s Mémoire

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pp. 149-150

Appendix 2: Annotated Translation of Aegidius Fauteux’s Le chevalier de Raymond

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pp. 151-158

Bibliography

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pp. 159-167

Index

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pp. 169-181


E-ISBN-13: 9780870139444
Print-ISBN-13: 9780870134333

Page Count: 220
Publication Year: 1997