Gender and Nation in the Spanish Modernist Novel
Publication Year: 2003
Published by: Vanderbilt University Press
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When I finished writing Crossfire: Philosophy and the Novel in Spain 1900-1934, my sense of accomplishment was somewhat diminished by an acute awareness that the book paid little attention to women writers. The focus of the bookâphilosophical fictionâprecluded a full treatment of the cultural landscape of the period, especially since women did not for the most part write what I defined as philosophical fiction....
Introduction: The Feminist Novel in Spain at the Crossroads of Modernism
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In a 1970s interview, ConcepciÃ³n Vilela, one of Carmen de Burgosâs colleagues at a Madrid Normal School in the early twentieth century, described Burgos (1867â1932) as âalgo modernistaâ (qtd. in Starcevic 1976, 129). Burgos, according to Vilela, engaged in activities that other Spanish women of her time would not dare to attempt, such as having coffee alone at a public cafÃ©...
1: Women and the Soul of Spain
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Theory and reality diverged sharply over womenâs place in the Spanish national landscape at the beginning of the twentieth century. The male-authored theory of the nature of Spain, which often allied women with the Krausist-inspired transcendental notion of an eternal Spanish tradition or Spanish national soul, clashed with the reality of womenâs increasingly immanent and concrete role in a rapidly changing...
2: Don Quixote as National Icon and Modernist Ideal
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After the Spanish army lost eighty ships and one thousand men in the brief 1898 war with the United States, one Spanish newspaper article observed, âWe were the only people capable of fighting for honour alone, we were gentlemen, we were Quixotesâ (qtd. in Butt 1998, 4). Especially in the first decade after the disaster, many male intellectuals who engaged in the national soul-searching that began before the war...
3: The Domestication of a Modernist Don Juan
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After JosÃ© Zorrilla debuted a romantic version of the classic Don Juan legend in 1844, the figure increasingly became associated with national values. JosÃ© Ãlvarez Junco notes the role of historical novels and plays in creating a public sense of national tradition in the nineteenth century (both Tirso de Molinaâs original play and Zorrillaâs reworking take place in the Spanish imperial sixteenth century)...
4: Barojaâs, Unamunoâs, and AzorÃnâs Failed Feminists
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Carmen de Burgosâs La entrometida (1924) reflects the schizophrenic situation in which Spanish women found themselves in the 1920s. They were caught between increasing expectations for equality and independence and the old social norms that were still firmly in place. As in both the rest of postâWorld War I Western Europe and the United States...
5: Biology as Destiny: New National Discourses on Gender Inform the Novel of the 1920s and Beyond
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If at the turn of the century and in the first decade of the twentieth century, woman-centered discourse marshaled social arguments in favor of womenâs education to further national progress, by the 1920s and 1930s, scientific, biologically centered discourse dominated public conversations about gender. Biological considerations on the nature of the sexes fueled new polemics over gender...
6: Vanguard Feminists Dream the Nation
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Rosa Chacel charted brave new territory in her essays on gender and in her novel Memorias de Leticia Valle, but she did not spring from a vacuum. She may have encased feminist ideals in a more vanguard novelistic format, but Carmen de Burgos, Margarita Nelken, Federica Montseny, and Concha Espina, who, like Chacel, were pro-Republican feminists, paved the way for her messages on gender...
Conclusion: A Legacy and a Prophecy
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When the niÃ±a bonita, the Spanish Republic, succumbed to its own internal divisions and the superior Nationalist forces, womenâs dream of a new sociopolitical order metamorphosed into the thirty-five-year nightmare of Francisco Francoâs dictatorial regime. The social revolution that included so many shifts in womenâs roles was dramatically reversed. The Franco government...
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Page Count: 368
Publication Year: 2003