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Jesuit Student Groups, the Universidad Iberoamericana, and Political Resistance in Mexico, 1913-1979

David Espinosa

Publication Year: 2014

The history of Mexico in the twentieth century is marked by conflict between church and state. This book focuses on the efforts of the Roman Catholic Church to influence Mexican society through Jesuit-led organizations such as the Mexican Catholic Youth Association, the National Catholic Student Union, and the Universidad Iberoamericana. Dedicated to the education and indoctrination of Mexico’s middle- and upper-class youth, these organizations were designed to promote conservative Catholic values. The author shows that they left a very different imprint on Mexican society, training a generation of activists who played important roles in politics and education. Ultimately, Espinosa shows, the social justice movement that grew out of Jesuit education fostered the leftist student movement of the 1960s that culminated in the Tlatelolco massacre of 1968. This study demonstrates the convergence of the Church, Mexico’s new business class, and the increasingly pro-capitalist PRI, the party that has ruled Mexico in recent decades.

Espinosa’s archival research has led him to important but long-overlooked events like the student strike of 1944, the internal upheavals of the Church over liberation theology, and the complicated relations between the Jesuits and the conservative business class. His book offers vital new perspectives for scholars of education, politics, and religion in twentieth-century Mexico.

Published by: University of New Mexico Press

Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

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pp. i-vi

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Acknowledgments

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pp. ix-x

Abbreviations

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pp. xi-xii

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Introduction

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pp. 1-14

...the The Unión National de Estudiantes Católicos (UNEC, National Catholic Student Union), and the Universidad Iberoamericana and emphasizes how each individual organization was tailored to the unique political, social, economic, and religious conditions of their day; it highlights the active role that the...

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1: Church-State Relations from the Porfiriato to the Mexican Revolution, 1876–1917

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pp. 15-34

...The early decades of the twentieth century were characterized by dramatic twists and turns in the Roman Catholic Church’s fortunes in Mexican society, an institution that had once exercised a near hegemonic influence in Mexico from the...

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2: The Asociación Católica de la Juventud Mexicana, the Mexican Revolution, and the Cristero Rebellion, 1912–1929

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pp. 35-52

...The Asociación Católica de la Juventud Mexicana (ACJM, Mexican Catholic Youth Association) was the creation of a French Jesuit cleric, Bernardo Bergöend, and represented a part of a greater social Catholic effort to refashion Mexican society...

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3: The Unión National de Estudiantes Católicos, the University of Mexico, and the Partido Acción Nacional: Student Politics, National Politics

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pp. 53-74

...The Unión National de Estudiantes Católicos (UNEC, National Catholic Student Union) emerged in 1926, during the darkest days of church-state conflict in post-revolutionary Mexico; it began as a grassroots movement by students from Mexico...

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4: The Revival of Catholic Higher Education in Mexico, 1943–1952: The Centro Cultural Universitario

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pp. 75-90

...The establishment of the Jesuit-sponsored Universidad Iberoamericana was the result of the realization of a longstanding desire by the Catholic Church to reestablish a Catholic university in Mexico, something that the nation did not have since the New World’s first university...

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5: The “Mexican Economic Miracle” and Vatican II, 1952–1967: The Universidad Iberoamericana

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pp. 91-112

...The 1950s and 1960s were years of curriculum development and institutionalization at the newly renamed Universidad Iberoamericana, and its success during this period was highly dependent on two key factors: the school received economic support...

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6: Tlatelolco, the Corpus Christi Massacre, and the Transformation of the Universidad Iberoamericana, 1968–1979

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pp. 113-138

...The years from 1968 to 1979 were the most dramatic and important in the history of the Universidad Iberoamericana; during this decade, the university was engulfed in the Mexican Student Movement of 1968 and its corollary the 1971 Corpus Christi...

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Conclusion

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pp. 139-144

...On May 11, 2012, the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI, Institutional Revolutionary Party)’s telegenic presidential candidate Enrique Peña Nieto arrived at the Universidad Iberoamericana’s Santa Fé Campus in Mexico City for a stop on his ongoing campaign to win the Mexican presidency. Enjoying favorable...

Notes

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pp. 145-180

Bibliography

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pp. 181-190

Index

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pp. 191-196

Back Cover

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E-ISBN-13: 9780826354617
E-ISBN-10: 0826354610
Print-ISBN-13: 9780826354600

Page Count: 216
Publication Year: 2014

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Subject Headings

  • Student movements -- Mexico -- History -- 20th century.
  • College students -- Mexico -- Societies, etc. -- History -- 20th century.
  • Jesuits -- Political activity -- Mexico -- History -- 20th century.
  • Universidad Iberoamericana (Mexico City, Mexico) -- History -- 20th century.
  • Catholic Church -- Mexico -- History -- 20th century.
  • Church and state -- Mexico -- History -- 20th century.
  • Government, Resistance to -- Mexico -- History -- 20th century.
  • Mexico -- Politics and government -- 20th century.
  • Mexico -- Social conditions -- 20th century.
  • Mexico -- Economic conditions -- 20th century.
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