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Juan Domínguez de Mendoza

Soldier and Frontiersman of the Spanish Southwest, 1627–1693

Edited by France V. Scholes, Marc Simmons, and José Antonio Esquibel; Translated by Eleanor B. Adams

Studies of seventeenth-century New Mexico have largely overlooked the soldiers and frontier settlers who formed the backbone of the colony and laid the foundations of European society in a distant outpost of Spain’s North American empire. This book, the final volume in the Coronado Historical Series, recognizes the career of Juan Domínguez de Mendoza, a soldier-colonist who was as instrumental as any governor or friar in shaping Hispano-Indian society in New Mexico. Domínguez de Mendoza served in New Mexico from age thirteen to fifty-eight as a stalwart defender of Spain’s interests during the troubled decades before the 1680 Pueblo Revolt. Because of his successful career, the archives of Mexico and Spain provide extensive information on his activities. The documents translated in this volume reveal more cooperative relations between Spaniards and Pueblo Indians than previously understood.

Published by: University of New Mexico Press

Front Cover

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Title Page, Copyright

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Contents

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pp. v-x

Illustrations, Maps, Tables, and Charts

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pp. xi-xii

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Foreword

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pp. xiii-xx

With the publication of this book, the final volume in the Coronado Historical Series, a project begun more than seven decades ago has at last been brought to a conclusion. The New Mexico state legislature in 1935 created the Coronado Cuarto Centennial Commission, whose purpose was to plan and carry out a commemorative program honoring...

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Preface

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pp. xxi-xxvi

Writings on the history of New Mexico in the seventeenth century have related chiefly to such topics as the founding of missions, the conflicts between secular and religious authorities, the successful revolt of the Pueblo Indians, and the reconquest of the Pueblo area during...

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A Question of Forgeries or Reconstructed Documents

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pp. xxvii-xxxii

Eleven of the fifty-one documents that make up the portfolio of the military service record of Juan Domínguez de Mendoza deserve special attention because of the fact that there are inconsistencies that draw into question their authenticity.1 These inconsistencies are addressed more specifically in the notes provided for each document. The general reasoning...

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Introduction

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pp. 1-66

Juan Domínguez de Mendoza is worthy of an honored place in the ranks of Spanish soldiers and settlers who helped defend the borderlands province of New Mexico in the seventeenth century. He was born in Mexico City in 1627, receiving the sacrament of baptism on May 30 of that year, with Hernán...

Part One: Military Service Records of Juan Domínguez de Mendoza and Related Documents

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Document 1: Proof of Lineage of Elena de la Cruz, 1625

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pp. 69-70

On August 8, 1625, Tomé Domínguez, “merchant [and] citizen of the City of Mexico,” and his wife, Elena de la Cruz, gave power of attorney to Francisco Franco authorizing him to go to Vera Cruz to obtain legal proof of the lineage of the said Elena de la Cruz. In Vera Cruz, August 30...

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Document 2: Commission as Alférez Real, Santa Fe, October 12, 1643

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pp. 70-73

Because of the person, quality and merits of Alférez don Juan Domínguez de Mendoza, I have complete confidence that he is a faithful, diligent, and honorable soldier. He has serviced His Majesty in these provinces more than three years with his arms and horses at his own expense, taking part...

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Document 3: Commission as Captain of Infantry, Santa Fe, December 7, 1644

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pp. 73-77

Inasmuch as it is necessary for the service of the king, our lord, and for the good government to have a guard and royal standard for a certain period in these Casas Reales, I have made a general list of all the people of this villa and provinces, and in order that it may be done in a satisfactory manner and...

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Document 4: Title of Captain and Commander, Santa Fe, April 14, 1646

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pp. 78-81

Inasmuch as the hostile Apache tribe called del Acho, of the eastern mountains toward Taos and Picurís, have committed and continually commit great robberies and killings in the pueblo of Taos and in Picurís, and in all the others where they have been able to do so, sentence of death has been...

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Document 5: Appointment as Lieutenant Governor and Captain General, Santa Fe, April 15, 1650

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pp. 81-83

For the service of His Majesty and fulfillment of His Majesty’s orders, it is necessary that a journey of inspection of all the pueblos of the Río Abajo as far as that of Senecú be made. For this purpose I must go in person, and in order that during my absence and while I am occupied with other business...

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Document 6: Commission as Captain of Cavalry, Santa Fe, November 10, 1652

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pp. 83-86

With regard to the quality and merits of Alférez don Juan Domínguez y Mendoza, I am entirely satisfied that he is a faithful, diligent, and honorable soldier, who has served His Majesty in these provinces for more than ten years with his arms and horses at his own expense, making, at extreme cost...

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Document 7: Certification of Services, Santa Fe, January 12, 1653

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pp. 86-88

I certify to the king, our lord, and to his Royal Council of the Indies, and to the viceroys and other ministers of His Majesty who may see this, that in the year 1651, when I came here to govern this kingdom, Captain don Juan Domínguez y Mendoza accompanied me from New Spain. He had gone there...

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Document 8: Certification of Services, Santa Fe, September 13, 1653

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pp. 88-89

I certify to his Royal and Catholic Majesty, and to all the viceroys, governors, presidents, and oidores of all his kingdoms and dominions, that during all the period of my government I have seen Alférez Juan Domínguez serve His Majesty in these provinces at his own expense, very well provided with arms...

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Document 9: Title of Maestre de Campo, Santa Fe, October 15, 1658

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pp. 90-93

Today, the ninth of the present month of October of the year 1658, I received a letter from Captain Bartolomé de Cisneros, alcalde mayor [administrative magistrate] and military captain of the provinces of Zuñi and Moqui, in which he informs me that at dawn on the seventh day of the said...

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Document 10: Commission as Captain of Mounted Harquebusiers, Santa Fe, August 30, 1659

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pp. 93-96

It is necessary to punish the hostile Indians of the Apache nation, destroy their power, and lay waste their sowings, in order that they may not have occasion to commit greater assaults than those they have made since I arrived to govern this kingdom, which I found greatly harassed by the said...

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Document 11: Appointment as Alcalde Mayor of the Jurisdictions of Sandia and Isleta and as Lieutenant Captain General in the Río Abajo, Santa Fe, November 19, 1659

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pp. 96-99

Whereas the administration of the royal justice and good government, for which it is necessary to provide, has been exercised by Captain Alonso García2 in the jurisdiction of Sandía, and in that of Isleta by Sargento Mayor Tomé Domínguez de Mendoza,3 alcalde mayor of [the said jurisdiction]...

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Document 12: Appointment as Escudero of the Encomienda of Sargento Mayor Francisco Gómez Robledo, Santa Fe, May 7, 1662

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pp. 99-101

The king, our lord (God keep him many years), has specified the number of thirty-five encomenderos, who, enjoying the tributes of the pueblos as wages, stipend, or pay, shall serve as soldiers in the continual war against infidels for the defense of what has been conquered and settled, serving with...

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Document 13: Title of Lieutenant Captain General and Visitador General, October 6, 1663

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pp. 102-103

Inasmuch as I am ill and unable to mount horseback because of my many indispositions, it is necessary for me to name a visitor general of the kingdom who shall act as my lieutenant captain general, in order that, representing my person, he may make the visita in all the provinces and pueblos of this...

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Document 14: Decree of Governor Peñalosa, Santa Fe, January 7, 1664

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pp. 104-105

I order Captain Juan Domínguez de Mendoza, alcalde ordinario of the Villa de Santa Fe, my lieutenant captain general and visitador of all the provinces and pueblos of New Mexico, to go to the estancias of Captains Andrés Hurtado,2 Cristóbal Baca,3 and Juan Luís,4 and to notify each one of them...

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Document 15: Appointment as Lieutenant of the Governor and Captain General in the Jurisdictions of the Río Abajo, Santa Fe, June 25, 1665

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pp. 105-107

Inasmuch as the administration of royal justice of the Río Abajo, from the pueblo of La Cienega, the Queres, and Jemez, to the pueblo of Senecú should have someone to administer justice to them in my name and as my representative, it is necessary to appoint a person as my lieutenant general...

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Document 16: Appointment as Visitador of the Mission Supply Caravan, Santa Fe, October 16, 1665

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pp. 107-109

Inasmuch as at the general time the royal supply train, of which General Juan Manso is in charge as its contractor, is about to leave this kingdom, and because, as is the custom, it is to be inspected in order that no prohibited thing or contraband may leave in it without permission and declaration; and because continually many servants of the citizens are wont to flee, merely for...

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Document 17: Appointment as Visitador of the Trading Caravan, Santa Fe, December 16, 1666

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pp. 109-112

Captain Cristóbal de Anaya,2 citizen of these provinces, provincial judge of the Santa Hermandad,,sup>3 has informed me [of his intention] to leave these provinces with a train of eight wagons for the Real y Minas de San José del Parral with merchandise and products of this country, and has asked my...

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Document 18: Appointment as Lieutenant of the Governor and Captain General, Santa Fe, February 10, 1667

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pp. 112-118

Captain Andrés de Gracia of El Paso del Río del Norte of this jurisdiction wrote letters asking for aid because the Manso nation was in revolt, as a result of which the friars of that conversion were in danger.2 With regard to these letters, councils of the captains, cabildo, and retired officials were held...

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Document 19: Edict Concerning a Council of War and Petition for Horses and Provisions for a Campaign against the Apaches, Santa Fe and Santo Domingo, February 18–26, 1668

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pp. 118-129

I state that I have seen two letters which I received this very day, one from Vicente Cisneros and the other from the lieutenant [of the governor and captain general of the Río Abajo].2 They describe the pertinacity of the Apache enemy in robbing, killing and laying siege to the houses, as they...

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Document 20: Title of Encomienda, Santa Fe, May 1, 1669

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pp. 129-132

At present one-third of the encomienda and tributes of the pueblo of Humanas of the Tunpira [Tompiro] nation is vacant.3 These [tributes] were formerly collected by Alférez Juan González Bernal,4 now deceased, and it appears that as a result of the death of the aforesaid, his son, Juan González,5...

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Document 21: Documents Concerning Provisions and Livestock Given by the Conventos for an Expedition against the Apaches, June 16–July 4, 1669

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pp. 132-139

Today, Sunday, which is the sixteenth of the present month, at about the hour of the Angelus, I received two letters, one from the reverend father definitor fray Fernando de Monroy, and the other from Captain Francisco Xavier.2 Both inform me that a great ambuscade of Apache enemies hurled...

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Document 22: Commission as Maestre de Campo in Campaign, Santa Fe, September 11, 1670

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pp. 139-142

By my order, reprisal and just war is to be made against the Apache enemies of the cordilleras [mountains] of the Siete Ríos and their environs in the jurisdiction of Las Salinas, because on the third of this month they launched a great ambuscade on the pueblo of Humanas, took possession of...

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Document 23: Commission as Sargento Mayor of the Kingdom, Santa Fe, June 27, 1671

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pp. 142-143

Inasmuch as I have retired Sargento Mayor Antonio González from the post of sargento mayor of the kingdom, which he held, it is necessary to appoint another person in his place to serve the said post, who should have the qualities required in military affairs. Moreover, [the province] is alive...

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Document 24: Commission as Maestre de Campo General of the Kingdom, Santa Fe, July 27, 1671

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pp. 144-147

As a result of the unremitting wars which the Apache nation, common enemies of our Holy Catholic Faith, continually wage in all this kingdom and its districts and environs, going forth from ambush to [attack] the royal roads and paths, Christian pueblos, and estancias of the Spanish citizens...

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Document 25: Appointment as Lieutenant of the Governor and Captain General, Santa Fe, August 2, 1671

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pp. 147-149

Yesterday, which was the first day of August of this present year, I received a message from Lieutenant General Tomé Domínguez de Mendoza and from Sargento Mayor Juan Lucero de Godoy, alcalde mayor of the district of Senecú, and another from Father Preacher fray Nicolás Hurtado, in which...

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Document 26: Certification of Services, Santa Fe, January 26, 1672

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pp. 149-151

I certify to the king our lord in his royal Council of the Indies, to the most excellent lord viceroy and the royal tribunal of New Spain, who may see the present writing, that I know Maestre de Campo don Juan Domínguez y Mendoza, citizen of this villa and encomendero in these provinces, and I...

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Document 27: Commission as Alférez Real Granted to Don Baltasar Domínguez de Mendoza, Santa Fe, December 27, 1672

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pp. 151-152

For the guard and custody of the royal standard and in order that there may be a person to raise it before me on campaign and in settled areas2 on occasions that may offer themselves in the royal service, it is most necessary to appoint as alférez real of this kingdom a person of every...

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Document 28: Commission as Maestre de Campo in Campaign, San Juan de los Caballeros, July 15, 1673

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pp. 153-156

Reprisal and just war is now to be made by my order against the common enemies, the Apache nation, irreducible and perverse, treacherous and traitorous, for the very grave harm they have done and continually do in the kingdom. Their boldness and insolence has extended so far that they...

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Document 29: Commission as Captain of Cavalry Granted to Don Baltasar Domínguez de Mendoza, Santa Fe, October 20, 1674

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pp. 156-157

In obedience to what His Majesty commands me with regard to calming, pacifying, and tranquilizing these provinces of New Mexico, it is necessary to provide an armed force sufficient both for the enemy frontiers and for the already conquered and settled [area]. Therefore, I have decided to have...

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Document 30: Commission as Maestre de Campo in a Campaign against the Faraon Apaches, Pecos, January 5, 1675

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pp. 157-159

I had arranged [to go] in person with a detachment and active army [pie de ejercito] of forty-four Spanish soldiers [to serve as] harquebusiers and two hundred fifty Indians [armed] with bows and arrows, to make reprisal and just war against the Apache nation called Faraones, Indian enemies of our...

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Document 31: Commission as Military Commander and Chief, Santa Fe, September 24, 1675

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pp. 160-163

Because of the atrocities, treacheries, and robberies which the hostile Apache nation has committed and continually commits, I have enlisted a force of armed men, consisting of forty harquebusiers and three hundred [Indians armed] with bows and arrows, in order to inflict punishment and...

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Document 32: Commission as Military Commander and Chief, Estancia de San Antonio, July 1, 1676

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pp. 163-164

The governor and captain general has been advised by repeated messages that the infidel Apache enemies are near the pueblos of Nuestra Señora del Socorro and San Antonio de Senecú, whence on different occasions they hurl themselves in attacks upon the said pueblos and carry off all the herds...

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Document 33: Commission as Lieutenant Captain General in Campaign, Santa Fe, July 12, 1678

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pp. 164-167

The hostile infidel Apache nation, irreducible and perverse common enemies of our Holy faith who surround this kingdom on all sides, are continually committing grave crimes such as atrocious killings in the fields and settlements and thefts of herds of horses and all kinds of livestock. As...

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Document 34: Instruction as Lieutenant Captain General, Santa Fe, July 12, 1678

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pp. 168-170

When all the enlisted force under your command has assembled in the plaza de armas of the pueblo of Zía, you will march out with your army in proper order and military discipline, sending spies ahead to acquaint themselves with the country and see whether any enemies or enemy may...

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Document 35:Commission as Lieutenant Captain General in Campaign, Santa Fe, October 28, 1678

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pp. 171-172

I have created a detachment and active army of fifty soldiers [to serve as] mounted harquebusiers, and four hundred Christian Indians [armed] with bows and arrows, both of which were enlisted to accompany me to inflict punishment and just war on the infidel enemy Indians, the Apache nation of...

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Document 36: Instruction as Lieutenant Captain General, Santa Fe, October 28, 1678

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pp. 173-175

To you, Maestre de Campo don Juan [Domínguez] de Mendoza, whom I have appointed as my lieutenant captain general in campaign, for the punishment and just war which is being waged at present: I order and command you to observe, fulfill, and execute the following instruction in its entirety...

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Document 37: Title of Encomienda of the Pueblo of Isleta, Santa Fe, November 26, 1678

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pp. 175-177

Inasmuch as the death of Maestre de Campo Francisco de Valencia has left vacant the share of the encomienda which he enjoyed by favor of His Majesty, who makes such grants for three lives to those who continually serve him in this kingdom, giving them by way of salary and recompense the...

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Document 38: Commission as Maestre de Campo in Campaign, Santa Fe, August 17, 16[79]

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pp. 177-178

The infidel Apache enemies who surrounded this kingdom have joined in the attempt to destroy Christianity here and have committed many robberies, atrocities, and sacrileges, even attacking the holy temples and barbarously capturing and killing innocent women and children. As soon...

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Document 39: Commission as Lieutenant General of the Cavalry, Ancón de Fray García, November 9, 1681

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pp. 179-181

At present I am on campaign in this post called the Ancón de Fray García,2 where I halted to muster and review all the armed force, horses, and other provisions in order to form squadrons, give ammunition to the soldiers, and do the other things necessary before continuing the march which by express...

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Document 40: Certification of Services, El Paso, October 13, 1683

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pp. 181-182

I certify to the king, our lord, in his royal councils and tribunals, to the governors and captains general there may be of this kingdom, and to all the royal ministers of His Majesty where the present writing may appear that Maestre de Campo don Juan Domínguez de Mendoza, citizen of these said...

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Document 41: Statement Made by Juan Sabeata before Governor Jironza Petríz de Cruzate, El Paso, October 20, 1683

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pp. 182-187

There has arrived in this said pueblo an Indian of the Jumano nation called Sabeata in his language, and Juan in Castilian, for he was baptized in San Joseph del Parral according to what he has said. Before I reached this post, he had been here and had returned to his land, which, according to what...

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Document 42: Commission as Commander of the Expedition to Texas, El Paso, November 29, 1683

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pp. 187-190

Juan Sabeata, Christian Indian of the Jumano nation, and others from their settlements have represented to me the fervent desires of their people to become Christians because they have come to realize the benefits it brings to them in saving their souls. They have learned this from some of their...

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Document 43: Instruction for the Expedition to Texas, El Paso, November 29, 1683

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pp. 190-193

Instruction to be observed by Maestre de Campo Juan Domínguez de Mendoza, whom I have appointed as captain, commander, and chief of all the volunteer force going to the new discovery of the Jumano nation and all the other nations friendly to them...

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Document 44: Certification, June 23, 1684

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pp. 193-196

Insofar as I can, I certify to the royal and Catholic Majesty of the king, our lord, and to all the viceroys, governors, presidents, and oidores of all his kingdoms and dominions who may see the present writing, that on the first day of the month of December of the year 1683 the reverend fathers...

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Document 45: Journal of the Expedition to Texas, 1683–1684

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pp. 196-213

When all the soldiers of this expedition had assembled at the Real de San Lorenzo, which is apparently twelve leagues to the east of the pueblo of Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe del Paso del Río del Norte, we set out from here on the 15th day of the month of December of the year 1683, for the discovery...

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Document 46: Certification of Documents Showing the Services of Maestre de Campo Don Juan Domínguez de Mendoza, El Paso, October 3, 1684

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pp. 214-221

We certify and attest to the king, our lord, God keep him many years, and to his royal Council of the Indies, and to the viceroys of New Spain and other ministers of His Majesty who may see this, that we know the Maestre de Campo don Juan Domínguez y Mendoza,3 citizen of these provinces, and that...

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Document 47: Certification of the Personal Appearance and Services of Maestre de Campo Don Juan Domínguez de Mendoza and His Two Sons, Don Baltasar and Don Juan, Issued by the Cabildo, Justicia, and Regimiento of the Villa de Santa Fe, El Paso, Octob

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pp. 221-224

The Maestre de Campo don Juan Domínguez y Mendoza, citizen of these provinces, appeared before this cabildo and presented a petition in which he makes presentation of his person and also of that of his two sons, Captain...

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Document 48: Excerpt from a Letter of Governor Domingo Jironza Petríz de Cruzate to the Viceroy, El Paso, August 26, 1685

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pp. 225-227

With regard to the Jumano expedition, I have already informed Your Excellency in a previous letter that the story of the holy cross turned out to be false.2 From this it must be inferred that all the rest contained in the journal is probably the same. Your Excellency has already been informed of...

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Document 49: First Memorial of Juan Domínguez de Mendoza to the Viceroy, Mexico City, November 18, 1685

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pp. 227-230

Most Excellent Sir: Maestre de Campo Juan Domínguez de Mendoza states that he has been informed that His Majesty (God keep him) is asking for detailed, clear, and precise information about the lands in the east and north which the most Christian king hopes to settle because of the report...

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Document 50: Second Memorial of Juan Domínguez de Mendoza [Mexico City], November 18, 1685

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pp. 231-234

Maestre de Campo Juan Domínguez de Mendoza states that he has served His Majesty in the provinces of New Mexico for forty-two years at his own cost and expense with his arms and horses. During the aforesaid time he has exercised military offices from the rank of simple soldier to those of alférez...

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Document 51: Criminal Case against Maestre de Campo Juan Domínguez de Mendoza and the Others Who Fled with Him, Guadalupe del Paso, September 28–October 6, 1685

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pp. 234-248

In the pueblo of Our Lady of Guadalupe del Paso on the 28th day of the month of September of the year 1685, Governor and Captain General don Domingo Jironza Petríz de Cruzate said that inasmuch as yesterday, Thursday, the 17th [sic; 27th] day of this month at about five o’clock in...

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Document 52: Attested Copy of a Document Issued by the Cabildo of Santa Fe, October 3, 1684, Certifying the Titles of Offices of Juan Domínguez de Mendoza, Mexico City, April 23–24, 1686

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pp. 248-253

In the city of Mexico on the twenty-third day of the month of April, 1686, before Captain don Pedro de Escalante y Mendoza, alcalde ordinario therein for His Majesty, this petition was read...

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Document 53: Petition of Fray Nicolás López to the Viceroy with the Reply of the Fiscal and Decision of the Junta General, Mexico City, March 26, 1686

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pp. 253-257

He has expressed to Your Excellency and to the royal audiencia his motives for coming to this capital, leaving that custodia during the time while he was prelate as the result of a council and decision of all the missionary friars, and coming to this city to describe the wretched state of that kingdom and...

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Document 54: Copy of the Sentence Pronounced in the Proceedings against Maestre de Campo Juan Domínguez de Mendoza, Mexico City, April 30, 1687

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pp. 258-260

In the City of Mexico on the twelfth day of the month of March of the year 1693, this petition was presented before Licenciado don Francisco Fernández Marmolejo, of the Council of His Majesty, his oider in this royal audiencia, and auditor general de la guerra of this kingdom...

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Document 55: Testimony Concerning the Conduct of Juan Domínguez de Mendoza during the Expedition of 1681–1682, [El Paso del Norte], May 19–June 12, 1687

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pp. 260-267

For the service of God, our Lord, and the good repute of our holy habits, it is necessary to verify and know for certain everything that happened in the pueblo of Cochiti of New Mexico at the time General don Antonio de Otermín entered to pacify and reduce those provinces, because certain ill...

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Document 56: Permission for Maestre de Campo Don Juan Domínguez de Mendoza to Bring His Wife and Family from El Paso del Río del Norte, Mexico City, July 23, 1688, and Presentation of License of Baltasar Domínguez de Mendoza, Nuestra Se

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pp. 267-269

Most Excellent Sir: Maestre de Campo Juan Domínguez de Mendoza, resident in this city, states that he has been informed that doña Isabel Durán y Chaves, the petitioner’s wife, who is now in El Paso del Río del Norte, has fallen so seriously ill that she needs a very long cure, and this cannot...

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Document 57: Decree of Governor Domingo Jironza Petríz de Cruzate, El Paso, March 1, 1689

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p. 269-269

The most excellent lord viceroy, on recommendation of the fiscal, has conceded license to Maestre de Campo don Juan Domínguez de Mendoza and his family [to leave New Mexico] on condition that it should not create a precedent. This [license] was presented before me and I obeyed it as an order...

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Document 58: Information Given by Maestre de Campo Don Juan Domínguez de Mendoza, Mexico City, June 6, 1693

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pp. 270-273

I, Maestre de Campo don Juan Domínguez y Mendoza, a citizen of this city, present myself before your lordship and I say that it is within my rights for you to receive from me information [confirming] that I am the one mentioned in the papers and documents of nobility, which I present with the necessary...

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Document 59: License for Maestre de Campo Juan Domínguez de Mendozato Go to Spain, Mexico City, June 12, 1693

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pp. 273-275

Most Excellent Sir: Maestre de Campo don Juan Domínguez de Mendoza, citizen of this city, states that it is necessary for him to go to the kingdoms of Castile on urgent business which absolutely requires personal attention...

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Document 60: Résumé of Papers Presented by Baltasar Domínguez de Mendoza, Madrid, August 19, 1694

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pp. 275-277

While he was serving as a soldier in the kingdom of New Mexico in the imitation of his father, don Juan Domínguez de Mendoza, who had done so more that forty years, the governor of New Mexico, on December 27, 1672...

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Document 61: Report of the Council of the Indies Concerning Petitions Made by Baltasar Domínguez de Mendoza, Madrid, October 1, 1694

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pp. 277-279

Sir: By decree of August 2 last of this year Your Majesty was pleased to remit a memorial of don Baltasar Domínguez y Mendoza in order that we might take it under consideration and report our opinion to Your Majesty...

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Document 62: Petition of Baltasar Domínguez de Mendoza to the Crown Asking for the Corregimiento of Tlajomulco and Caxititlan, [Madrid, November] 1694

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pp. 279-281

Sir: Captain don Baltasar Domínguez y Mendoza, son of Maestre de Campo don Juan Domínguez y Mendoza, citizen of the provinces of New Mexico, states that his aforesaid father served Your Majesty for more than forty-four years in the conquest of the aforesaid New Mexico and the reduction of...

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Document 63: Petition of Baltasar Domínguez de Mendoza Asking for Admission to One of the Military Orders, [Madrid], March 1695

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pp. 281-283

Sir: Captain don Baltasar Domínguez y Mendoza, son of Maestre de Campo don Juan Domínguez y Mendoza, says that his aforesaid father served Your Majesty for more than forty-four years in the conquest of the aforesaid New Mexico and reduction of other provinces. His aforesaid...

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Document 64: Royal Cédula to the Viceroy of New Spain Recommending Don Baltasar Domínguez de Mendoza, Madrid, April 21, 1695

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p. 284-284

In consideration of the fact that don Juan Domínguez de Mendoza served me for more than forty years in the wars of New Mexico, achieving by his zeal and intelligence fortunate successes in those conquests, having been badly wounded on two occasions; and because don Baltasar Domínguez...

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Document 65: Papers Concerning the Return of Baltasar Domínguez de Mendoza to New Spain, May 26–July 8, 1695

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p. 285-285

Royal cédula to the officials of the Casa de Contratación in Seville ordering them to permit don Baltasar Domínguez de Mendoza to return to New Spain in the fleet which is about to sail. Aranjuez, May 26, 1695.2...

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Document 66: License Granted to Baltasar Domínguez de Mendoza to Travel in the Fleet of General Don Ignacio de Barrios Leal, July 8, 1695, Cádiz

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pp. 285-286

Don Baltasar Domínguez de Mendoza seeks to return to the Provinces of New Spain from which he came by virtue of a decree from His Majesty. Before don Juan Baptista de Aguinaga and don Francisco Lorenzo de San Millán...

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Document 67: Certification of Services of Don Juan Domínguez de Mendoza, the Younger, Santa Fe, September 18, 1701

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pp. 286-288

I certify to the king, our lord, in his royal audiencia of Mexico City, and to other judges and justices of His Majesty that with manifest danger to his life, don Juan Domínguez y Mendoza took part in carrying out the campaign I undertook in the months of June and July against the apostate...

Part Two: Supplemental Documents

Supplemental Document 1: The State of the Conversions, Churches and Conventos of the Custodia de San Pablo in New Mexico in the Matter of Granting Forty Friars, Circa 1641

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pp. 291-296

Supplemental Document 2: List of Administrators of Justice and War during the Tenure of Governor Don Bernardo López de Mendizábal, Santa Fe, 1659–1661

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pp. 296-297

Supplemental Document 3: List of Papers of Merits and Services of New Mexico Vecinos, Santa Fe, July 11, 1662

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pp. 297-301

Supplemental Document 4: Merits and Services of Don Diego de Guadalajara Bernardo de Quirós, Lieutenant Governor of Nueva Vizcaya, Madrid, January 4, 1664

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pp. 301-304

Supplemental Document 5: Certification of the Number of Friars Serving in the Conventos of the Custody of New Mexico, Mexico City, December 6, 1667

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pp. 304-310

Supplemental Document 6: Account of the Services of Don Fernando de Villanueva, Governor and Captain General of the Provinces of New Mexico by Appointment of the Marqués de Mancera, Viceroy of New Spain, October 30, 1671

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pp. 310-314

Supplemental Document 7: Letter of the Viceroy to the King Regarding Aid to New Mexico to Quell the Invasion of the Apache Nation, Mexico City, January 13, 1678

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pp. 315-317

Supplemental Document 8: Excerpt from a Petition of Fray Nicolás López to the Viceroy, Mexico City, June 7, 1685

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pp. 317-321

Supplemental Document 9: Letter of Fray Nicolás López to the Secretary of the Council of the Indies, Don Antonio Ortiz de Otalora, Mexico City, April 24, 1686

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pp. 321-323

Supplemental Document 10: Memorial of Fray Nicolás López to His Majesty, Mexico City, April 24, 1686

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pp. 323-332

Supplemental Document 11: Account of the Services of Don Domingo Jironza Petríz de Cruzate, Former Governor and Captain General of the Provinces of New Mexico, January 12, 1693

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pp. 332-344

Part Three: In Service to the Spanish Crown: The Family of Juan Domínguez de Mendoza

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Background

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pp. 347-348

The first genealogical account of the Domínguez de Mendoza family was researched, compiled, and written by fray Angélico Chávez, representing the second-longest family section of the first part of Origins of New Mexico Families in the Spanish Colonial Period. Chávez extracted bits and pieces of information...

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Paternal and Maternal Ancestry of the Domínguez de Mendoza Clan

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pp. 348-355

The progenitors of the Domínguez de Mendoza family of seventeenth-century New Mexico were Tomé Domínguez—also known as Tomás Domínguez—and Elena de la Cruz—also known as Elena Ramírez de Mendoza. Tomé was a native of the Villa de Cartagena, born circa 1587.1 It is not clear whether his...

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The Domínguez de Mendoza Family in New Spain

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pp. 355-356

Tomé Domínguez and Elena de la Cruz were the parents of fourteen known children, all born in New Spain. On July 4, 1617, this couple presented their firstborn son, Juan [sic; José] for baptism at the church of San José in Puebla de los Ángeles, New Spain, in the company of his godparents, Gerónimo Riguerio...

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The Domínguez de Mendoza Family in New Mexico

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pp. 356-360

Tomé Domínguez’s association with New Mexico can be traced to 1631, when fray Estéban de Perea, the comisario of New Mexico, sent some dispatches to Mexico City in the care of Domínguez, who was identified as a vecino of Mexico City.33 On March 4, 1633, fray Estéban de Perea, again in his capacity...

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Juan Domínguez de Mendoza and Doña Isabel de Chaves y Bohórquez

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pp. 360-365

The military service records of Juan Domínguez de Mendoza provide the most detailed historical account of any single individual of seventeenth-century New Mexico. Domínguez de Mendoza was born in May 1627, in Mexico City, and apparently began his military career in New Mexico at an early...

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Francisco Domínguez de Mendoza and Juana de Rueda

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pp. 365-371

Francisco Domínguez de Mendoza received the sacrament of baptism on October 28, 1618, in the Church of San José in the Ciudad de Puebla de los Ángeles.81 At the age of almost twenty-five, he contracted marriage with Juana de Rueda, a native of Mexico City and a daughter of Manuel...

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Tomé Domínguez de Mendoza and Doña Catalina López Mederos

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pp. 371-378

The baptismal record of Tomé Domínguez de Mendoza, dated February 19, 1623, was recorded in the book of sacraments of the sagrario chapel of the Catedral de México in Mexico City.104 His parents were identified as Tomé Domínguez and Elena de la Cruz, and his godfather was a man named Gaspar...

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Doña Damiana Ramírez de Mendoza and Álvaro de Paredes

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pp. 378-380

The brief residency of Álvaro de Paredes in New Mexico spanned perhaps as many as five years or fewer, before his untimely death at the age of twenty-three in 1662. Born in February 1638 in Mexico City, Álvaro very likely came to New Mexico as a soldier in the company of his brother, fray José de...

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Doña Leonor Ramírez de Mendoza and Cristóbal de Anaya Almazán

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pp. 380-388

The strategic matrimonial alliance of the Domínguez de Mendoza family with the politically influential Anaya Almazán family bolstered the integration and upward mobility of the more recently arrived Domínguez de Mendozas within New Mexico’s social milieu. Like the Domínguez de Mendoza family, that...

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Doña Elena Domínguez de Mendoza and Don Pedro II Durán y Chaves

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pp. 388-393

Of the eight daughters of Tomé Domínguez and Elena de la Cruz, Elena Domínguez de Mendoza was one of four that are known to have lived in New Mexico. By all appearances, Elena became the second wife of don Pedro II Durán y Chaves, son of Pedro I Durán y Chaves and doña Isabel de...

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José Domínguez de Mendoza and Juana Domínguez

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pp. 393-.95

No known male members of the families of Juan, Tomé, and Francisco Domínguez de Mendoza returned with the restoration of New Mexico under Governor don Diego de Vargas in 1693, although several female family members did resettle northern New Mexico. However, the Domínguez de Mendoza...

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Epilogue

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pp. 395-416

The advent of the eighteenth century ushered in significant changes to New Mexico’s frontier society. Between 1693 and 1695, new settlers from many regions of Nueva Vizcaya and Nueva España, as well as some from Europe, converged in northern New Mexico, reshaping the social structure that...

Works Cited

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pp. 417-430

Index

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pp. 431-455

Back Cover

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E-ISBN-13: 9780826351173
E-ISBN-10: 0826351174
Print-ISBN-13: 9780826351159
Print-ISBN-10: 0826351158

Page Count: 464
Illustrations: 5 halftones, 3 maps, 6 tables

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Subject Headings

  • Domínguez de Mendoza, Juan, 1627-1693.
  • Pueblo Revolt, 1680 -- Sources.
  • New Mexico -- History -- To 1848 -- Sources.
  • Spaniards -- New Mexico -- History -- 17th century -- Sources.
  • Pueblo Indians -- New Mexico -- History -- 17th century -- Sources.
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