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Beyond Wari Walls

Regional Perspectives on Middle Horizon Peru

Edited by Justin Jennings

Publication Year: 2010

The scholars whose work is assembled here attempt to better understand the nature of Wari by examining its impact beyond Wari walls. By studying Wari from a village in Cuzco, a water shrine in Huamachuco, or a compound on the Central Coast, these authors provide us with information that cannot be gleaned from either digs around the city of Huari or work at the major Wari installations in the periphery. This book provides no definitive answers to the Wari phenomena, but it contributes to broader debates about interregional influences and interaction during the emergence of early cities and states throughout the world.

Published by: University of New Mexico Press

Front Cover

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pp. i

Title Page

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pp. iv


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pp. v

Table of Contents

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pp. vi-vii

List of Figures

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pp. viii-ix

List of Tables

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pp. x

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Chapter 1: Beyond Wari Walls

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pp. 1-18

The Middle Horizon (AD 600–1000) was a significant turning point in Andean prehistory. For the first time, a large swath of the Central Andes was linked together through interregional exchange and shared cultural influence. These interactions were anchored by two great cities that shared basic elements of their religious cosmology...

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Chapter 2: The Nature of Wari Presence in the Mid–Moquegua Valley: Investigating Contact at Cerro Trapiche

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pp. 19-36

In the Moquegua Valley the arrival of the Wari has been long understood through metrocentric models of imperial expansion that see the provincial centers as enforcers of centralized economic and political power of the Ayacucho core (Isbell 1978; Isbell and Cook 1987; Jennings 2006; McEwan 1991, 2005; Schreiber 1987, 1992)...

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Chapter 3: Becoming Wari: Globalization and the Role of the Wari State in the Cotahuasi Valley of Southern Peru

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pp. 37-56

The Middle Horizon (AD 600–1000) was a pivotal period in pre-Columbian Peru. The period was marked by an unprecedented increase in the interregional flow of prestige goods, staple items, and ideas (e.g., Burger et al. 2000; Lechtman 1980; Shady Solís 1982, 1988). Arsenic bronze, for example, was introduced and produced extensively across the country; flexed burial became more common; and the Quechua and Aymara languages were likely more widely spoken...

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Chapter 4: Wari in the Majes-Caman

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pp. 57-78

This chapter reviews evidence of the Wari material culture horizon from the Majes- Caman

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Chapter 5: Local Settlement Continuity and Wari Impactin Middle Horizon Cusco

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pp. 79-95

Archaeologists have debated the administrative scope and intensity of the Wari polity for years. Some scholars argue that Wari constitutes the first Andean empire (e.g., Isbell 1989, 1997, 2000; Isbell and McEwan 1991; Lumbreras 1969; McEwan 2005a; Menzel 1964, 1968; Schaedel 1993; Schreiber 1992, 2001), while others describe kin-based confederations...

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Chapter 6: Nasca and Wari: Local Opportunism and Colonial Ties during the Middle Horizon

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pp. 96-112

By the mid-twentieth century, when archaeologists had accepted that Wari was an independent and powerful pre-Hispanic society, research on the Nasca culture of the South Coast of Peru led to questions about the role and influence of Wari in coastal regions. Dorothy Menzel’s (1964) study of Middle Horizon ceramics was one of the first to try and define the relationship between the Wari state and the Nasca culture...

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Chapter 7: The Wari Footprint on the Central Coast: A View from Cajamarquilla and Pachacamac

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pp. 113-135

Much of the debate over the last four decades on the nature of and the interaction between the societies of the Central Coast and Wari during the Middle Horizon has been polarized by two positions that could be characterized as the Ayacucho-based hegemonic or imperialist view and the locally based mercantile model. The former sees the Central Coast directly or indirectly dominated by the Wari Empire...

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Chapter 8: What Role Did Wari Play in the Lima Political Economy? The Peruvian Central Coast at the Beginning of the Middle Horizon

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pp. 136-154

Archaeological research has increasingly disputed the centralized character of the spread of Wari in the Andes. Field data continue to challenge style-based chronologies, showing that strong local developments, traditionally thought to belong to the Early Intermediate Period, are at least partially contemporaneous with the pan-Andean expansion of Wari traits. Recently, the coexistence of strong local societies...

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Chapter 9: The Wari State, Its Use of Ancestors,Rural Hinterland, and Agricultural Infrastructure

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pp. 155-170

While the other chapters in the volume describe the changes that occurred during the Middle Horizon in places outside of the central highlands of Peru, this chapter describes what happened in a valley located relatively close to the Wari heartland. Evidence from the Chicha-Soras Valley indicates that the first appearance of Wari-affiliated sites set in large-scale terraced agricultural systems...

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Chapter 10: Piecing Together the Middle

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pp. 171-187

The data for the Norte Chico do not fit expectations of social or political control by the Wari during the Middle Horizon (MH). Instead, they reveal participation of local polities in at least two panregional iconographic phenomena as well as in their own localized systems. These levels of participation are visible in architecture and pottery stylistic features in both the Pativilca and Huaura valleys...

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Chapter 11: Contextualizing the Wari-Huamachuco Relationship

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pp. 188-212

The interpretation of Wari as an imperial power in prehistoric Peru (e.g., Isbell 1991a, 1991b; Schreiber 1992, 2001) has come under closer scrutiny in the last few years by scholars who are reassessing data that have been gathered in areas assumed to be under Wari control and who are questioning the applicability of the imperial model that underlay previous explanations of the Middle Horizon...

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Chapter 12: Moche and Wari during the Middle Horizonon the North Coast of Peru

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pp. 213-232

The major goal of this paper is to provide an overview of recent archaeological researches on the North Coast of Peru in order to contribute to the discussion of the relation between the Moche and Wari polities. The recognition of Wari as a predatory state and a likely candidate for establishing the first empire in South America has produced an intellectual climate...

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Chapter 13: Agency, Identity, and Control: Understanding Wari Space and Power

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pp. 233-254

What is the best archaeological understanding of the great spread of Wari ceramic styles, architectural forms, mortuary practices, and luxury objects during the central Andean Middle Horizon?1 Beyond Wari Walls brings together a collection of papers, each one examining the archaeological record of a lower-order place...


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pp. 255-258


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pp. 259-267

Back Cover

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pp. 268

E-ISBN-13: 9780826348692
E-ISBN-10: 0826348696
Print-ISBN-13: 9780826348678
Print-ISBN-10: 082634867X

Page Count: 278
Illustrations: 66 halftones, 16 maps
Publication Year: 2010