The San Diego World's Fairs and Southwestern Memory, 1880-1940
Publication Year: 2005
In the American Southwest, no two events shaped modern Spanish heritage more profoundly than the San Diego Expositions of 1915-16 and 1935-36. Both San Diego fairs displayed a portrait of the Southwest and its peoples for the American public.
The Panama-California Exposition of 1915-16 celebrated Southwestern pluralism and gave rise to future promotional events including the Long Beach Pacific Southwest Exposition of 1928, the Santa Fe Fiesta of the 1920s, and John Steven McGroarty's The Mission Play. The California-Pacific International Exposition of 1935-36 promoted the Pacific Slope and the consumer-oriented society in the making during the 1930s. These San Diego fairs distributed national images of southern California and the Southwest unsurpassed in the early twentieth century.
By examining architecture and landscape, American Indian shows, civic pageants, tourist imagery, and the production of history for celebration and exhibition at each fair, Matthew Bokovoy peels back the rhetoric of romance and reveals the legacies of the San Diego World's Fairs to reimagine the Indian and Hispanic Southwest. In tracing how the two fairs reflected civic conflict over an invented San Diego culture, Bokovoy explains the emergence of a myth in which the city embraced and incorporated native peoples, Hispanics, and Anglo settlers to benefit its modern development.
Published by: University of New Mexico Press
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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
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The California-Pacific International Exposition, 1935–1936 / 141The San Diego Century-of-Progress Exposition, 1935–1936 / 143...
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
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Figure 4. Publicity poster for the Panama-California Exposition,Figure 8. Police authorities control free-speech demonstration inFigure 20. Panama-California Exposition fairgrounds on the centralFigure 22. Decorative elements for the Casa de Balboa and Casa del Figure 27. Scientific library inside the California Building, 1936 / 105...
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The idea for this book began with a conversation at Gelato Vero Caféin San Diego in the winter of 1995. I wanted to write about my home-town of San Diego, especially the world’s fairs that had shaped its mod-ern development. Ramón Gutiérrez, a history mentor of mine since mydishwashing days at the café, suggested, “You should write a dissertation...
PREFACE: The Spanish Heritage
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...“An interest in mission ruins and Indian relics has been known to leadto an interest in Mexicans and Indians,” wrote Carey McWilliams withoptimism in North from Mexico: The Spanish-Speaking People of the UnitedStates, his 1949 book about the U.S.-Mexico borderlands. Although hedespaired it would never be, McWilliams believed a more critical south-...
PROLOGUE: San Diego and the Spanish Colonial Inheritance
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...“Fages would not give this mission more than one-half of half a cuar-tillo of corn for the Indians from the Californias,” complained Fray LuísJayme to Fray Rafael Verger, O.F.M., guardian of the College of SanFernando in Mexico City in October 1772. Jayme was head cleric of theSan Diego mission. He experienced difficulty bringing new Indian con-...
PART ONE—HISTORY AS MYTH: The Panama-California Exposition, 1915–1916
CHAPTER ONE: Southern California Gets the Panama Exposition
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...“We have decided to make this exposition different in character fromany other,” thundered D. C. Collier, director-general of the San DiegoPanama-California Exposition. He sat confidently in front of the UnitedStates House Committee on Industrial Arts and Expositions and per-suaded its members that San Diego’s exposition would “work out the...
CHAPTER TWO: Planning a Southwestern Exposition, 1915
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...began in City Park, which was renamed “Balboa Park” in 1910 afterVasco Núñez de Balboa, the conqueror of Panama and Central America.Through these efforts, the physical form and theme of the fair movedfrom imagination to completion. The Southern California expositionAmerican fairs, the neoclassical architecture and monumental Beaux-Arts...
CHAPTER THREE: "The Peers of their White Conquerors"
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...“The reason why this Exposition appeals with such overpowering forceto the imagination of the visitor may not at once be apparent,” wroteWilliam H. Holmes in the fall 1915 issue of Art and Archeology. The SanDiego fair was not “stupendous as the international expositions, but anachievement far removed from these and possible only in the Southwest.”1...
CHAPTER FOUR: "A Heritage in History, Forever"
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...“You’re homesick,” explained Jesse Nusbaum to María Martínez as shesat silently forming matte black earthenware at the Painted Desert exhi-bition. Martínez realized, “That’s it. I’m sick for home, here in myheart.” Nusbaum had hired two Pueblo families to help build the adobe“pseudopueblos,” those of Julian and María Martínez and their brother-...
PART TWO—MYTH AS HISTORY: The California-Pacific International Exposition, 1935–1936
CHAPTER FIVE: The Legacies of 1915: The San Diego Century-of-Progress Exposition, 1935–1936
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The Panama-California Exposition created the cultural institutionsof Balboa Park, which were bequeathed to citizens and visitors for eter-nal enjoyment. When the exposition closed, George Marston, EdgarHewett, and members of the business community formed the San Diego“remain as a permanent exhibit in the museum at San Diego.” Earlier in...
CHAPTER SIX: "The Answer Is to Be Found in Those Yesteryears and Tomorrows"
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...29, 1935, to crowds numbering in the tens of thousands, despite thehard economic times. On display for all to see were the federal govern-ment’s recovery efforts for the American West and corporate America’sdesigns for material abundance in Southern California. Similar to many“Century-of-Progress” expositions held during the turbulent 1930s, the...
CHAPTER SEVEN: Popular Amusements and the Fight for Moral Authority in Southern California
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In June 1965, San Diego Magazine published the 1935 San Diego fairmemories of Sam Erwine, the great-grandson to a San Diego mayor. As ateenager during the uncertain 1930s, Erwine remembered little about the“official fair,” the efforts of the federal government and American businessto deliver the culture of abundance to Southern California. He explained...
EPILOGUE: Spanish Fantasy Heritage, Social Politics
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...“Serra was a Baby Killer,” “Genocidal Maniac,” and “MurderousLying Scum” adorned the statues of Presidio Park in the form of graf-fiti. These words greeted crowds on September 25, 1988, to celebrateFather Junípero Serra’s advance toward sainthood in the RomanCatholic Church. “It saddens and angers me,” said Eleanor Neely, edu-...
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Archival sources are given in full the first time they appear in each chapter.1. Carey McWilliams, North from Mexico: The Spanish-Speaking People of theUnited States (1948; reprint, New York: Greenwood Publishers, 1968), 288; CareyMcWilliams, The Education of Carey McWilliams (New York: Simon and Schuster,1978), 98–115, 176–79; Daniel Geary, “Carey McWilliams and Antifascism,...
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American Philosophical Society Archives, Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaBancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, CaliforniaLaboratory of Anthropology, Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe, New MexicoNational Anthropology Archives, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DCOklahoma State University, Government Documents Room, Edmon Low Library,...
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Page Count: 336
Publication Year: 2005