Basho and the Dao
The Zhuangzi and the Transformation of Haikai
Publication Year: 2005
Published by: University of Hawai'i Press
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It used to be quite normal in countries of the West when discussing Japanese literature or art to point out the enormous indebtedness to Chinese predecessors and to imply that the Japanese lacked creativity or imagination. When I first began to teach Japanese literature at...
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I would like to express my deep gratitude to Donald Keene, who led me to this topic and whose guidance and encouragement made this book possible. I am indebted to many people for assistance in writing this book, and it is impossible to mention them all here. Selecting from that...
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Haikuâs popularity is worldwide today, comparable even to the modern Western realistic novel. Indeed, Japanese haiku verses are now translated into many languages, haiku variants are being composed in different tongues on all the major continents, and a quick Internet search on...
Chapter 1: Encountering the Zhuangzi
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Haikai, a Japanese poetic form that is roughly translated as comic linked verse, evolved from renga, or classical linked verse, during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. From renga to haikai no renga (or haikai), and then to the independence of the opening verse of...
Chapter 2: From Falsehood to Sincerity
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The Danrinâs gÃ»gen style prevailed in the world of haikai in the middle of the EnpÃ´ era (1673â1681). By the end of the 1670s, some of the Danrin poets were pushing âthe free exaggerationsâ and âthe most deluding falsehoodsâ to an extreme, promoting a style that some critics described as...
Chapter 3: BashÅâs FÅ«kyÅ and the Spirit of ShÅyÅyÅ«
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With his move to Fukagawa, BashÃ´âs thematic emphasis shifted from explicit philosophical truth to poetic truth, or to use his own term, fÃ»ga no makoto. Yet the truth of poetry BashÃ´ and his school pursued was infused with Daoist ideas, particularly the spirit of carefree wandering...
Chapter 4: BashÅâs FÅ«ryÅ« and Daoist Traits in Chinese Poetry
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Oku no hosomichi, the best-known piece of BashÃ´âs travel journal, contains the following passage: After having arrived at the post station of Sukagawa, I called upon a man named TÃ´kyÃ», who insisted that we stay at his house for a few days...
Chapter 5: Following ZÅka and Returning to ZÅka
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After BashÃ´âs journey, which he recorded in The Narrow Road to the Depths (Oku no hosomichi), the ShÃ´mon haikai witnessed a stylistic change in the 1690s, as BashÃ´âs disciple Kyorai observed...
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Index of Haikai Verses Cited
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Publication Year: 2005