Architecture and Urbanism in Modern Korea
Publication Year: 2013
Although modernization in Korea started more than a century later than in the West, it has worked as a prominent ideology throughout the past century—in particular it has brought radical changes in Korean architecture and cities. Traditional structures and ways of life have been thoroughly uprooted in modernity’s continuous negation of the past. This book presents a comprehensive overview of architectural development and urbanization in Korea within the broad framework of modernization.
Twentieth-century Korean architecture and cities form three distinctive periods. The first, defined as colonial modern, occurred between the early twentieth century and 1945, when Western civilization was transplanted to Korea via Japan, and a modern way of life, albeit distorted, began taking shape. The second is the so-called developmental dictatorship period. Between 1961 and 1988, the explosive growth of urban populations resulted in large-scale construction booms, and architects delved into modern identity through the locality of traditional architecture. The last period began in the mid-1990s and may be defined as one of modernization settlement and a transition to globalization. With city populations leveling out, urbanization and architecture came to be viewed from new perspectives.
Inha Jung, however, contends that what is more significant is the identification of elements that have remained unchanged. Jung identifies continuities that have been formed by long-standing relationships between humans and their built environment and, despite rapid modernization, are still deeply rooted in the Korean way of life. For this reason, in the twentieth century, regionalism exerted a great influence on Korean architects. Various architectural and urban principles that Koreans developed over a long period while adapting to the natural environment have provided important foundations for architects’ works. By exploring these sources, this carefully researched and amply illustrated book makes an original contribution to defining modern identity in Korea’s architecture, housing, and urbanism.
Inha Jung is a critic, historian, and professor of architecture at the Hanyang University, ERICA Campus.
Published by: University of Hawai'i Press
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During the twentieth century, one of the most dramatic rises to modern prominence in Asia, if not elsewhere in the world, occurred in South Korea. From a scant three percent of the total population living in urban circumstances less than one hundred years ago, the urban proportion is now over eighty percent. Th e wealth of the nation’s citizenry has risen considerably, from literally dirt poor aft er the calamitous civil war in the early 1950s to respectable middle-income status today. Industrialization, ...
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I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all those who provided support and guidance throughout this study. Th is book began life when I was a visiting scholar at the Harvard Graduate School of Design in 2007, where I had the unique opportunity to develop my ideas in collaboration with Professor Peter Special recognition should also be given to Professor Jong-Soung Kimm, whose insights have been I am very grateful to the architects Tai Soo Kim, Kyu Sung Woo, Kerl Yoo, Hyo-Sang Seung, ...
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Th is book traces the transformation of architecture and urban space over the course of the last one hundred tumultuous years of Korea’s history, a time when the built environment changed so fundamentally that it is diffi cult to grasp completely its transfi gurations. Judging from pictures taken by an Australian photographer in 1904, Korea at that time was a land of seclusion and isolation, remote from modern civilization. Th e urban population was barely 3 percent of the total; the population of ...
Part I Modern Life in the Colonial Period
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Chapter 1 The First Urbanization
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...tifi ed as health, productivity, and effi ciency,1 as tools for trialization.”2 According to these latter scholars, Korea’s not requiring fi lling in; (b) hill lots; and (c) foreshore lots Fig. 1.4 View of Mokpo, ca. 1930? (Photo courtesy of Sam-Geon Han)Fig. 1.6 View of Gunsan, ca. 1930? (Photo courtesy of Sam-Geon Han)...
Chapter 2 The Genesis of Urban Housing
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Fig. 2.4 Martha Switzer’s house in Daegu, ca. 1910 (Redrawn from measurements Fig. 2.5 Four Japanese-style house types (counterclockwise from top left ): successive room, entry hall, passageway, and middle Fig. 2.6 Typical samurai house in Japan (Kashiwagi et al. 2001, Fig. 2.8 Site plannning, Munrae-dong housing complex, Joseon Housing Fig. 2.11 Four types of urban hanok according to orientation—B: bedroom, D: daecheong, K: kitchen, M: master bedroom...
Chapter 3 Architecture and the Introduction of New Materials
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Fig. 3.1 Industrial Training Center, Seoul, 1907–1909 (Redrawn from Hanguk bangsong tongsin daehak 2005, 110)Fig. 3.6 Belgian consulate building, 1903–1905, reconstructed Fig. 3.8 Jinhae post offi ce, 1912 (Photo by Inha Jung) Fig. 3.9 Wall section, Jinhae post offi ceFig. 3.15 Examples of the Collegiate Gothic style in Korea (left to right): Ehwa Women’s University, William M. Vories, 1933–1935; Jungang High School, Dong-Jin Park, 1935–1937 (Photos by Young-Chae Park)...
Part II Searching for Identity in the Developmental Period
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Chapter 4 Urban Expansion and the Construction Boom
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...claim seems dubious, it’s possible that the offi cials might plan), Seoul in the 1930s (land readjustment plan), Seoul in the Fig. 4.7 New Seoul Plan, Byung-Joo Park, 1966 (Byung-Joo Park 1966, 8)Fig. 4.9 Four stages in the development of the circulation network of Gangnam: (a) Seoul twenty-year plan (1966); (b) circulation network in 1970 (Seoul yeoksa bakmulgwan 2006, 124); (c) circulation network in 1970 (Seoul teukbyeolsi, 1988, annex) (d) present-...
Chapter 5 New Urban Housing
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Urban hanok Spec house in Gwanak (1970) Spec house in Donghak (1969) Spec house in Gangnam (1978)Fig. 5.2 Transformation of dwelling space in Korea between the 1950s and 1980sYeongdeungpo (1976)eongdeungpo (1976)Gwanak (1975) Gangnam (1978)Fig. 5.4 Aerial views of Donam-dong, Seoul, illustrating the rise of multihousehold dwellings in a village of urban hanok (left to right): 1966, 1981, 1995 (Courtesy of National Geographic Information Institute)...
Chapter 6 The Quest for Architectural Identity
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...locality, or what is “local,” still expresses the perspective at the edges to catch cool breezes.”18 Th e governor’s resi-Fig. 6.9 Elevations (left to right) of the governor’s residence at Chandigarh, Dongsipjakak, sador’s offi ce, in contrast, soars like the roofl ine of a tra-create the visual eff ect of traditional raft ers (fi gure 6.12). ...
Chapter 7 The Semantics of Technology
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Fig. 7.1 St. Mary’s Hospital, Jong-Soo Kim, 1958–1963 (Photo Th is notion of “internal truth” is well illustrated in the membrane structures. Th e fi rst is the “air-support type,” his own time the meaning of technology (fi gure 7.20).Fig. 7.19 Olympic gymnastic stadium, Swoo-Geun Kim, ...
Part III From Modernization to Globalization
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Chapter 8 Discovering Reality
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...fi rst, a “cultural” disease, namely, the illusion that every the ‘here and now’.”8 Th is assertion refl ected the state of had an affi nity with the concept of “critical regionalism” traditions.”12 Th e design of the room signifi ed a shift in work at Jose Luis Sert’s offi ce. Sert’s work infl uenced Woo ...
Chapter 9 New Paradigms for Urban Design
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...refl ected in the city’s link to its airport.”6 Another central feature in KPF’s plan is a strip of commercial offi ce space Fig. 9.5 Songdo master plan, 2011 (Courtesy of Incheon Free Economic Zone)defi nes “an evolving city typology.”19 Diff erent types of Fig. 9.12 Subaekdang, Hyo-Sang Seung + Florian Beigel, 1998 (Photo ...
Epilogue: A Correlative Architecture between the Void and the Solid
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Th is book has presented a comprehensive overview of architectural and urban development in Korea within the broad framework of modernization. A meaningful conclusion can only be drawn if we begin with an understanding of the modernization process. Korea’s modernization cannot be explained by any single widely accepted theory. It followed its own distinctive trajectory in several respects, leaving two daunting tasks to the observer. Th e fi rst is to answer the question whether Western-centric concepts of ...
Appendix: Profiles of Korean Architects and Planners
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Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: Spatial Habitus: Making and Meaning in Asia’s Architecture