We cannot verify your location
Browse Book and Journal Content on Project MUSE

Born Again

Evangelicalism in Korea

Timothy S. Lee

Publication Year: 2010

Known as Asia’s "evangelical superpower," South Korea today has some of the largest and most dynamic churches in the world and is second only to the United States in the number of missionaries it dispatches abroad. Understanding its evangelicalism is crucial to grasping the course of its modernization, the rise of nationalism and anticommunism, and the relationship between Christians and other religionists within the country.

Born Again is the first book in a Western language to consider the introduction, development, and character of evangelicalism in Korea—from its humble beginnings at the end of the nineteenth century to claiming one out of every five South Koreans as an adherent at the end of the twentieth. In this thoughtful and thorough study, Timothy S. Lee argues that the phenomenal rise of this particular species of Christianity can be attributed to several factors. As a religion of salvation, evangelicalism appealed powerfully to multitudes of Koreans, arriving at a time when the country was engulfed in unprecedented crises that discredited established social structures and traditional attitudes. Evangelicalism attracted and empowered Koreans by offering them a more compelling worldview and a more meaningful basis for association. Another factor is evangelicalisms positive connection to Korean nationalism and South Korean anticommunism. It shared in the aspirations and hardships of Koreans during the Japanese occupation and was legitimated again during and after the Korean conflict as South Koreans experienced the trauma of the war. Equally important was evangelicals’ relentless proselytization efforts throughout the twentieth century.

Lee explores the beliefs and practices that have become the hallmarks of Korean evangelicalism: kibok (this-worldly blessing), saebyok kido (daybreak prayer), and kumsik kido (fasting prayer). He concludes that Korean evangelicalism is distinguishable from other forms of evangelicalism by its intensely practical and devotional bent. He reveals how, after a long period of impressive expansion, including the mammoth campaigns of the 1970s and 1980s that drew millions to its revivals, the 1990s was a decade of ambiguity for the faith. On the one hand, it had become South Korea’s most influential religion, affecting politics, the economy, and civil society. On the other, it found itself beleaguered by a stalemate in growth, the shortcomings of its leaders, and conflicts with other religions. Evangelicalism had not only risen in South Korean society; it had also, for better or worse, become part of the establishment.

Despite this significance, Korean evangelicalism has not received adequate treatment from scholars outside Korea. Born Again will therefore find an eager audience among English-speaking historians of modern Korea, scholars of comparative religion and world Christianity, and practitioners of the faith.

Published by: University of Hawai'i Press

Cover, Title Page, Copyright, Dedication

pdf iconDownload PDF (1.3 MB)
pp. i-v


pdf iconDownload PDF (54.3 KB)
p. vii-vii

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF (58.8 KB)
pp. ix-x

It took a long time to complete this book, and I could not have done it without the guidance and support of a number of persons and institutions. I relish this opportunity to thank them. First, my thanks go to scholars associated with the University of Chicago who helped me through the book’s dissertation stage. This ...

read more


pdf iconDownload PDF (77.0 KB)
pp. xi-xvi

In 1907, two years after it became a Japanese protectorate and three years before it was forcibly annexed to Japan, Korea was known in the West as a hermit nation, a backward and introverted country, unwilling to be assimilated into modernity.1 For Korean Protestants, however, 1907 was a watershed year ...

read more

Chapter 1. Breakthrough for a New Moral Order, 1885–1919

pdf iconDownload PDF (276.5 KB)
pp. 1-45

From a century or so before 1885, when Protestant evangelism began in earnest in Korea, till the demise of the Chosŏn dynasty in 1910, Korea experienced cultural distortion.1 The roots of this distortion were varied and cumulative. In part, it was caused by famines and epidemics that had devastated ...

read more

Chapter 2. Conflict, Introversion, and a Tradition of Korean Revivalists, 1920–1953

pdf iconDownload PDF (245.6 KB)
pp. 46-83

Though the March First Movement failed to bring national independence to Koreans, it did bring an end to the so-called Dark Period of the Japanese rule in Korea.1 For evangelicalism and Korean people in general, however, this did not mean that the remainder of the Japanese rule would ...

read more

Chapter 3. Evangelicalism Takes Off in South Korea, 1953–1988

pdf iconDownload PDF (208.5 KB)
pp. 84-114

From the great revival of 1907 till the onset of Japanese repression, the rapid growth of evangelicalism in Korea had continually elicited enthusiasm from the international Protestant community. The first non-Koreans to express such enthusiasm were the Korea missionaries themselves, whose success ...

read more

Chapter 4. The Intensely Practical and Devotional Character of Korean Evangelicalism

pdf iconDownload PDF (175.9 KB)
pp. 115-138

In 1990 Harold L. Willmington, vice president of the fundamentalist Liberty University in Virginia, visited South Korea. During his visit, Willmington observed various aspects of the Korean Protestant Church. Apparently impressed by what he saw, he lauded the church for the central role it plays ...

read more

Epilogue: The Beleaguered Success of Korean Evangelicalism in the 1990s

pdf iconDownload PDF (127.8 KB)
pp. 139-151

At the beginning of the twentieth century, Christians constituted less than 1 percent of the Korean population.1 Near the end of the century, according to a 1995 survey by the South Korean National Statistics Office, Christians constituted 26.3 percent of the population, surpassing Buddhists, ...


pdf iconDownload PDF (317.4 KB)
pp. 153-198


pdf iconDownload PDF (182.2 KB)
pp. 199-220


pdf iconDownload PDF (138.8 KB)
pp. 221-228

E-ISBN-13: 9780824837600
Print-ISBN-13: 9780824833756

Publication Year: 2010