Sudan at the Brink
Self-Determination and National Unity
Publication Year: 2010
Published by: Fordham University Press
Title Page, Frontispiece, Copyright
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Almost fifty years ago, when working as a young physician in the Southern Sudan, I met Francis Deng for the first time. Even then, the region was a war zone. Large numbers of innocent civilians were being killed and maimed and an ancient society was being threatened with destruction; however, I also witnessed the beginnings of the noble, tenacious struggle for understanding, reconciliation, and peace...
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After years of protracted negotiations, with regional and international mediation, the Government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement and Army (SPLM/A) concluded the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). The settlement met with varying responses at home and abroad. Southerners responded with jubilation primarily because the agreement granted them the right of self-determination...
1 Aspirations for National Unity
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The 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between the Government of the Sudan (GOS) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement and Army (SPLM/A) gives the South the right to secede, but it also stipulates that all efforts be exerted during the six-year interim period to make unity an attractive option for the South. The implication of this stipulation is that the burden of making unity...
2 Dialogue on Peace Issues
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In September, 1989, less than three months after the alliance between the National Islamic Front and Islamist elements in the Sudanese army seized power on June 30, 1989, in the name of the Revolution for National Salvation, Bona Malwal and I went to Addis Ababa to confer with Dr. John Garang de Mabior, leader of Sudan People’s Liberation Movement and Army (SPLM/A), on the developments in the country and the...
3 Symposium on Self-Determination and Unity
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During the second half of 2009, intellectuals, scholars, and political activists began to engage actively in debates concerning the likely outcome of the 2011 self-determination referendum in Southern Sudan. Time was running out and while most observers maintained a neutral position on the issue of unity and Southern secession, it was becoming clear that the cause of unity which was to be promoted during the...
4 Update on Developments
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This note builds on the findings and observations from my recent visit to Sudan and Ethiopia. Sudan is confronted with multiple crises that, if not constructively managed, could explode in a genocidal catastrophe. These crises are not only reflected in the increasingly tense relations between North and South, as the self-determination referendum of 2011 approaches, but also in interethnic conflicts within the North...
5 Ten Principles on Negotiations
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Negotiations with third-party mediation are the counterpart to violent confrontation. Since independence, Sudan has twice alternated between devastating violent conflicts and negotiations leading to the peaceful resolution of the conflicts. The seventeen-year war (1955–1972) was ended by the Addis Ababa Agreement and the twenty-two-year war (1983–2005) ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The...
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During the first half of 2010, the position of the international community on the situation in Sudan has developed quite constructively in several ways. A consensus has emerged in support of the full implementation of the CPA. This includes holding the referenda in the South and in Abyei as scheduled and respecting the choice of the people, whether for unity or for partition. Accordingly, the measures...
About the Institution
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The Institute for International Humanitarian Affairs (IIHA) offers students of all levels an academic base for the study of humanitarian aid. At a time when terrorism and war are at the forefront of international affairs, the Institute is committed to training humanitarian workers to adapt within diverse crisis situations by giving them the critical skills needed to operate effectively in unfamiliar and often dangerous...
Page Count: 72
Publication Year: 2010