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The Global Emerging Market in Transition

Articles, Forecasts, and Studies

Vladimir Kvint

Publication Year: 2004

A compendium of the work of Vladimir L. Kvint, Global Emerging Market in Transition: Articles, Forecasts, and Studies is an essential guide to understanding the intricacies behind global trends and emerging markets. Starting with the explanations and definitions of global trends, classifications of different perspectives of emerging markets, and the general understanding of the nature of modern global emerging markets, Professor Kvint moves the reader through the current emerging markets in Europe, Central Asia, and Latin America, providing analyses and forecasts. He then presents an in-depth analysis of today's largest emerging market-Russia. Professor Kvint stresses the importance of Russia's move from a communist command system to a free-market economy, and how this will affect the business community politically, socially, and economically.

Published by: Fordham University Press

Title Page, Copyright Page

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Contents

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pp. vii-xii

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Preface

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pp. xiii-xiv

This is not a typical book. It was not written all at once—it contains articles, forecasts, and studies made over the past 30 years. Life passes so quickly one can hardly remember how old one is; having just written that phrase, I remembered my age. I did not know how many...

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Becoming a Strategist: An Introduction to the Second Edition

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pp. xv-xxiv

As a boy of 16, I was a simple metalworker whose main responsibility was to make hammers. One late evening, my boss, the team leader, called me and said, ‘‘Vladimir, in any case, you are not a good metal worker; better you should...

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Introduction: The Future Begins Today

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pp. 1-16

The business world of the 21st century and the new millennium will not arise out of nowhere; it will inherit the characteristics, from the last 15 years of the 20th century, of the world’s business map. Specifically, there is no one...

Part I: Understanding the Global Emerging Market

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pp. 17-

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Incorporating Global Risk Management in the Strategic Decision Making Process

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pp. 21-33

Ten years ago, the global business world was totally different from what it is today. While this is not surprising, the scope of the changes is virtually unprecedented. In 1986, the world was divided into 18 Developed Countries...

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Emerging or Developed, What's the Difference?

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pp. 34-36

Securities Operations Letter: You have developed three approaches to identifying emerging markets. Why did you develop these approaches, and what are they? Vladimir Kvint: They were needed...

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A Different Perspective on Emerging Markets

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pp. 37-44

It is no surprise that the Fourth World Economic Development Congress, which took place in October in Washington, D.C., had ‘‘emerging markets’’ at the top of its agenda. It is the single most important issue for the world...

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How Emerging is Emerging?

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pp. 45-46

One question to consider in preparation for what lies ahead is how to define what an emerging market really is? How many institutional investment funds use a written policy to determine which countries qualify as emerging markets? How familiar are plan sponsors with their managers’ definition...

Investing in the Emerging Markets

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pp. 47-48

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Gauging the Risk: Foreign Direct Investment in Emerging Market Countries

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pp. 49-63

In the last two decades of the twentieth century, watershed political changes rocked five continents and, as a result, broke open scores of countries that never before had been an integral part of the global market. The historic...

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International Monetary Fund and the World Bank: The Advantages and Shortcomings

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pp. 64-67

In 1944, the Soviet Union had the opportunity to become a founding member of the IMF and World Bank. Joseph Stalin sent representatives (including the father of Victor Gerashenko, the current head of the Central Bank) to...

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Don't Give up on Russia

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pp. 68-81

The Russians love their dictators, I’ve heard American say. I suppose one could argue the point. But Westerners who think Russians are hostile to a free economy are just plain wrong. The 25% of the population that voted for the nationalists in the last parliamentary election were not voting...

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The Russian Investment Dilemma

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pp. 82-96

Do the risks of starting joint ventures in Russia outweigh the benefits? Some experts are counseling U.S. companies to move slowly as they develop joint ventures in Russia. In ‘‘Don’t Give Up on Russia,’’ Siberian-born Vladimir Kvint advises Americans to invest early and move fast. Despite sky-rocketing inflation and other economic hardships, the climate for international...

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Russia is Creating a System to Ensure Foreign Investment: $1.5 Billion Collateral Fund Established to Safeguard Foreign Ventures

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pp. 97-100

The recent political fights should be taken in their proper context. After 70 years of communism, the road to democracy is anything but straight. What is clear is that there is no longer any turning back; nothing can strangle...

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The Nature of International Joint Ventures and Their Role in Global Business

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pp. 101-129

International politics during the 1980s were marked by the collapse of communism; the end of the ColdWar; the breakdown of dictatorships in Latin America, Pacific Asia, and the Indian Subcontinent; and the end of apartheid in South Africa. These changes and those from the technological...

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Development of International Joint Ventures in Russia: Risks and Opportunities

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pp. 130-146

For 74 years of Soviet history, foreign economic activity was a monopoly of the state. Even state enterprises and industrial ministers were not authorized to have direct business relationships with foreigners. All foreign trade and foreign business cooperation belonged exclusively to two state...

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"To Capital Markets, with Love," Says Russia

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pp. 147-148

With a carrying cost of roughly 65% on the latest auction of its outstanding government debt, Russia is keen on opening its government bond markets to the world’s yield-hungry investors. Up to now, the country’s treasury bill..

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Russia is Losing the Battle for Foreign Investment

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pp. 149-151

Although the present worldwide shortage of capital diminishes the interest of Western investors in Russia, in the future, this country is seen as an emerging capitalist market. A year or two...

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Despite Rough Waters, Market Economy Cruises Ahead: Opportunities Abound in NIS for Intrepid Investors

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pp. 152-155

Recent political events in Moscow and their coverage in the media have been misleading about the situation in Russia. The battles of October have had no real impact on the development of a free market economy. As practically all Russian leaders (except a few stupid Fascists) understand...

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Kvint's Forecast: Beyond the Political Fog, the Business Horizon Looks Clear

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pp. 156-160

What has happened in the former Soviet Union in the past three years has no analogy in history. The world’s biggest and last empire has collapsed. When I wrote in The New York Times on October 28, 1990, that by 1992 there would no longer be a Soviet Union, very few people shared...

Part II: The Top Emerging Markets of Europe, Central Asia, and Latin America

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pp. 161-

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We Forgive You

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pp. 163-165

The movement of foreign capital to emerging markets is usually as relentless as the eastward flow of the mighty, murky Danube. Capital seems inevitably attracted to the lower expense bases of developing countries, with their weaker...

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Europe's Top Six Emerging Markets

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pp. 166-177

In the early 1990s, the global business world changed entirely, due to the ascendancy of the emerging market countries. In comparison with the previous decade, emerging market nations as a group increased in land mass, population...

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Balkans: Emerging Market for International Business

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pp. 178-181

The fall of the BerlinWall and the disintegration of the Soviet Union created not one but several new markets for the international investment community. Serious investors must view each market separately, both in terms of...

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Balkan Refugees in the European Union and the United States: Strategic Economic Solutions for Migration

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pp. 182-189

Migrants and refugees suffer from a number of social ills that compromise their human rights no matter where they live. They have limited access to social and health services and their plight is hardly the primary concern...

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Bulgaria Lags Behind Dangerously

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pp. 190-192

Every year The Wall Street Journal, in collaboration with the Heritage Foundation (an independent organization), publishes an index on the degree of economic freedom. The major business circles in the world are defined by these data...

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Amnesty for Capital Exported Abroad: Italy Did it, which Means Bulgaria can Do it too

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pp. 193-194

At the end of January the European Commission approved the special Italian law regarding the nationalization of capital exported abroad. This means that Italy is the first country from the euro zone to announce that illegally...

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Bulgaria is the Last Klondike in Eastern Europe

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pp. 195-198

During the four-year revolution of President Boris Yeltsin, Russia has sold, for almost nothing, about 75% of its economy. Most of the Eastern European countries have finished their process of mass privatization. Only one...

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Building Capitalism in Bugaria by Decree

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pp. 199-201

Q: Mr. Kvint, what are your impressions from your contacts with the Bulgarian Government? A: The first thing that I noticed is that Bulgaria is steadily going toward a market economy. However, Bulgaria lags behind the rest of the former communist countries...

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Ukraine: Living in Russia's Shadow

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pp. 202-204

Living in the shadow of the neighboring Russia, Ukraine, Europe’s largest emerging country, but one of the least known, is making considerable strides in reforming its economy and attracting foreign investment. Some of its effort...

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Kazakstan: Rich in History and Resources

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pp. 205-211

Kazakstan is a very young nation and one of the ten largest countries, by territory, in the world. The first is Russia. The territory of Kazakstan equals approximately all the territory in Europe. Anyone who tries to conduct business in the former Soviet bloc knows Kazakstan. But very few know the...

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Brazil: Social Developments and Telecommunications Market Analysis

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pp. 212-226

In the contemporary world, a strong connection exists between the development of the telecommunication (telecom) system and the social and economic progress of the country. This relationship is multi-directional. On the...

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Climb to the Top

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pp. 227-228

My friend Lori Minard was born 51 years ago at the foot of Mount Rainier on theWest Coast of the USA. He dared to climb to the top, as he had promised to himself. On August 2, 2001, at 4.4 kilometers up, he told his 16-year-old daughter he was choking. He sat down and unbuttoned his...

Part III: The Emerging Market of Russia

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pp. 229-

Transition to a Free Market

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pp. 231-232

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Putin's War on Three Fronts

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pp. 233-234

In ‘‘Watch Out, Kleptocrats,’’ I predicted that Vladimir Putin would be elected president of Russia in March and that he would declare war on corruption. But what I didn’t foresee was the decisiveness with which Putin would...

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Watch Out, Kleptocrats

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pp. 235-237

In ‘‘The Last Days of Boris Yeltsin,’’ published in the September 7, 1998, edition of Forbes Global, I wrote: ‘‘[Boris] Yeltsin might strike a deal to step down (he is not a well man) before the next elections, which are set for June 2000.’’ On...

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The Last Days of Boris Yeltsin

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pp. 238-244

Eighty-one years ago this autumn, the October Revolution swept from power a weak and ineffectual democratic government in Russia and replaced it with totalitarian rule. As it turned out, this was a dark day in world history...

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Fixing Russia

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pp. 245-246

In his speech announcing his nomination of Viktor Chernomyrdin as prime minister, President Boris Yeltsin stated that no one could have expected the Russian financial crisis. Soldiers and workers aren’t getting paid, export earnings...

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Yearend—Bull Run in Russia, East Europe May Slow

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pp. 247-248

New York, Dec. 12 (Reuters)—More players, more issues but lower returns are expected for the fixed income markets in Russia and East Europe in 1997, U.S. experts said. Investors expect 1997 to be less bountiful than 1996, which so far has seen Russian debt double...

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Watching Russian Business Ventures

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pp. 249-251

While the world waited for the first stage of Russia’s presidential elections, Vladimir Kvint was watching commercial activity more closely than the balloting. Kvint had predicted the breakup of the Soviet Union two years before...

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Russia's Imbalance of Power

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pp. 252-254

On June 16, Russia will hold its most important election of this century as its people vote to retain or replace President Boris N. Yeltsin. But this political puzzle, like all puzzles, has a clear, finished picture: No matter who is elected, Mr. Yeltsin will remain in power. The only question is what title he...

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Election Results in the Russian Duma

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pp. 255-258

As usual, the American mass media is overestimating political changes in Russia and their implication for business. The conventional wisdom about the election results in Russia is that the communists have come back to...

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Privileges of the Duma and Boris Yeltsin's Power

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pp. 259-262

On December 17 there will be a new political spectacle in Russia: election to the parliament. Some believe that this is an important election, one that will have an impact on business, or be a prognosticator for the presidential election on June 16, 1996....

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Russia's Crumbling Infrastructure

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pp. 263-265

Russia needs investment in modern technology and more financial experience from the West if it hopes to make a difficult transition from socialism to capitalism. But Russia will have a hard time attracting foreign investment...

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Russia's Capitalist Institutions

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pp. 266-268

There is no single Russia; there are many, and they are intertwined. There is the Russia of great opportunity, the Russia of political upheaval, the Russia of crime and bribery, and the Russia of entrepreneurs and executives trying to conduct business despite uncertainty. These differing faces confuse...

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Criminal Activity in Russia: Fact and Fiction

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pp. 269-275

The notion that criminal activity in Russia is rampant is quickly making the rounds of potential investors. Whether it is real or imagined, the issue of crime and the power of the ‘‘Russian Mafia’’ is taking a front seat in strategic decisions...

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New Ruble Zone Doomed, Experts on Russia Say

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pp. 276-

The pact signed this month by Russia and five former Soviet republics to form a new ruble zone is doomed, Russian specialists and economists said. The agreement to create an economic and monetary union with the ruble as a common currency would require the republics to bow to Russian demands on fiscal and...

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Russian Expert Addresses Community Group and Faculty: Professor, Consultant, and Author Vladimir Kvint on Campus

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pp. 277-278

Vladimir Kvint is an internationally recognized specialist on the economy and natural resources of Russia and other former Soviet Republics. A professor at Fordham University and a senior consultant at Arthur Andersen Economic Consulting, Kvint spoke before the California–Russia Trade..

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Russian Diamonds

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pp. 279-281

Harry Oppenheimer and his son Nicholas were in Moscow early last September. The Oppenheimers control De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd. and were there for the opening of De Beers’s firstMoscow office. De Beers, South Africa’s giant mining company and marketer of diamonds, is the world’s largest producer of diamonds. Through its Central Selling Organization...

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A Healthy Realism for the Russians

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pp. 282-283

For 40 years I lived in Russia, where communist propaganda bombarded people with images of the United States as the enemy. But this was largely ineffective, since most Russians distrusted such information. Only now that...

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Why Yeltsin is Stymied

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pp. 284-

When President Boris N. Yeltsin of Russia failed to get his congress to approve his economic plan along with his choice for prime minister, Yegor Gaidar, he accused the legislative body of seeking to return the country to the dark...

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Gorby Takes the Fifth

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pp. 285-286

Recently Mikhail Gorbachev has been complaining bitterly toWestern correspondents that the Russian militia, acting on orders from the Russian government, seized not only the building housing his Gorbachev Foundation...

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Down the Rathole

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pp. 287-289

The recent political summit in Munich ended with only one concrete result. The leaders of the industrialized countries agreed to give the Russian government $1 billion through the International Monetary Fund. This amount will likely be followed by another $6 billion stabilization fund to...

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Opportunity in a Shattered Land

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pp. 290-291

The business map of the future is being drawn in the old Soviet Union and in Eastern Europe. Most of the attention is going to the disintegration—the splitting apart—of the world we knew. But another process is at work,...

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Copying the Community

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pp. 292-

While Western Europe was unifying, the Soviet Union was becoming unglued. Last week Russia’s President, Boris N. Yeltsin, and the leaders of Ukraine and Byelorussia, replaced the union with a new commonwealth. The republics...

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Political, Economic, and Legal Reform in the Soviet Union

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pp. 293-296

The development of Soviet-American relations has received much attention in the United States. Clearly, the development of such a relationship facilitates peace; for those who trade do not start wars with one another. Currently, the Soviet Union is undergoing the process of social revolution...

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The New Map of Eastern Europe

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pp. 297-

Vladimir Kvint, a Russian-born economist, has contributed forwardlooking coverage for Forbes on the collapse of socialism. In ‘‘Russia as Cinderella’’ (February 1, 1990) he...

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Siberia: A Warm Place for Investors

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pp. 289-301

Shortly before the failed coup took place, this joke came out of the Soviet Union: Mikhail Gorbachev sits in his office, musing on a huge portrait of himself. ‘‘Soon, my friend, the people will take us down,’’ murmurs Gorbachev. ‘‘You are...

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Gennadi Yanayev, Overachiever

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pp. 302-

The rise of a mediocre man like Gennadi Yanayev demonstrates how weak and desperate the Soviet Communist Party has become. Neither a smart reactionary nor a talented technocrat, he is gray, cynical, and pragmatic just like the party...

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The Coup's Aftermath: Will Gorbachev be the Loser?

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pp. 303-

The coup last week in the Soviet Union failed before most people outside of Russia could learn how to pronounce the plotters’ names. But it demonstrated powerfully how deeply the Soviet Union has committed itself to reform. ‘‘Even the...

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Dead Souls

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pp. 304-308

All the economic news from the Soviet Union is bad these days. But underneath the turmoil, and with unemployment heading for 30 million, change for the better takes hold slowly but irresistibly. Under new laws Soviet citizens can work for foreign companies in the USSR and abroad, not...

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United We Fall

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pp. 309-

I would immediately abolish the Union treaty and offer all the republics absolute independence and the opportunity to consider entering a new union on mutually beneficial terms. This actually should have been done two...

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Czar Gorbachev?

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pp. 310-

Vladimir Kvint’s articles in Forbes on events in the Soviet Union have been close to prophetic: A year ago, when few thought the Soviet empire could ever break up, Kvint predicted and advocated the withdrawal of the Russian Republic from the...

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The Myth of Good Czar Gorbachev

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pp. 311-313

In 1991 the name ‘‘USSR’’ will disappear from the political map of the world. It would be interesting to know what the Norwegian Nobel Committee now thinks of last year’s winner, Mikhail Gorbachev. Until January this revolution...

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Harsh Look at Soviet Prospects

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pp. 314-316

A top Soviet economist now lecturing and consulting in the U.S. believes the Soviet Union will begin to break up over the next year, that a significant portion is likely to fall into civil war, and that by November the country will be...

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The Soviet Union on the Way to the Market: One Step Forward, then Two [Steps Backward]

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pp. 317-

Not only will the Soviets’ way to a free market economy be long and hard for Gorbachev, but the population must also have some painful experiences. The past year is proof. Inflation and unemployment have increased markedly. According...

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Opportunities in Soviet Disintegration

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pp. 318-319

Despite the Soviet parliament’s approval of President Mikhail S. Gorbachev’s plan to create a market economy, the Soviet Union will not live to celebrate its 70-year anniversary in 1992. The Soviet Union’s political and economic crises are intensifying, and if the forces of disintegration continue—as I expect they will—the Union will come apart. By 1992...

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Who's in Charge Around Here?

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pp. 320-324

The fight for power between Mikhail Gorbachev and Boris Yeltsin is almost over. Yeltsin and his team will define the future of Russia. Gorbachev will end up in a largely ceremonial role. Americans have been...

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Cold War on Oil Melting with Changes in Russia

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pp. 325-327

Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait could be a blessing in disguise for theWest, and for the Russians, whose firm support for sanctions against Baghdad reflects the new, still unfamiliar, face of Soviet politics. The increasing assertiveness...

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Reshuffling the Soviet Deck

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pp. 328-

Some people thought we sounded pretty farfetched when our cover story February 19 predicted Russia would quit the present Soviet Union, which would then re-form as a looser federation. That has partly come to pass. Boris Yeltsin proclaimed the sovereignty of Russia’s laws over the Union’s...

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The Best Way to Help Gorbachev is to Make Life Difficult for Him

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pp. 329-333

In failing to press Gorbachev on behalf of Lithuanian freedom, the Western governments may have unwittingly brought to a halt the further progress of perestroika. President Bush and his allies wanted to avoid pushing Gorbachev into a corner. Instead they have strengthened the hands of those in the Soviet Union who are trying to stop the movement...

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Free the Ruble!

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pp. 334-338

Is the ruble nothing but rubble, a weak substitute for money in the crisis-ridden country? Definitely, no. It is just a prisoner that is not allowed to go to the party of the world economy, for mostly political reasons. But it is not worthless. The ruble is already...

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Lenin's Legacy

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pp. 339-

Whoever attempts to guide the Soviet Union over the coming years, he or she must confront the centuries-old nationalities problem. It is a daunting challenge. Lenin declared that Ukrainians, Balts, and other ethnic groups...

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Russia as Cinderella

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pp. 340-345

Will the Baltic republics actually separate from the Soviet Union or not? If yes, will Moscow’s response be military intervention, as it was in 1968 in Czechoslovakia? These are the questions that have been worrying many people for a long time. In the meanwhile, mutual reproaches within the Soviet Union are growing into real quarrels and may come to a dead...

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"We are Bogged Down"

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pp. 346-348

Quick: Professor Kvint, the Soviet Union is experiencing a harsh winter. Have supply shortages already surfaced as a result? Kvint: This is the cold season of the great economic crisis. Within the next few months the old system will self-destruct. On the other hand, this is an opportunity for renewal....

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Crisis and Recovery in Soviet Economy

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pp. 349-352

Many leading economists took part in earlier reform attempts, but without sufficient criticism. The real achievements of the Soviet economy were too little used; for example, the Siberian...

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Austrian Machines for the Soviet Union: In 1990 The Economic Crisis will Worsen

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pp. 353-355

Austria’s interconnection with the Comecon Countries is still too small, asserted Professor Vladimir Lwowitsch Kvint, leading researcher of the Economic Institute of the Academy of Sciences in the USSR, in an interview...

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Russia Charts New Island of Capitalism

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pp. 356-257

Murmansk brings to mind wartime arctic convoys, but a free economic zone the Russians are planning for the region could provide a major opportunity for injecting dynamism into Anglo-Soviet trade. This is the view of Professor Vladimir Kvint, vice chairman of the Soviet Export Association...

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Best Laid Plans

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pp. 358-

There may be a different sort of crisis coming up, according to one of the Soviet Union’s top economists. Professor Vladimir Kvint, one of the small brood of free marketers who followed Mr. Gorbachev’s adviser Abel Aganbegjan back from Siberia to top policy positions, is now adviser to the Soviet...

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Doing Business in Moscow

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pp. 359-360

Perestroika’s financial face is trying to make the Soviet Union more accessible to foreign investment. But at this tentative stage it is a moot point whether greater accessibility is more than a modification of autarky. Foreign trade is a very modest part of the Soviet gross national product...

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Power to Perestroika

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pp. 361-365

The uproar in the little store in Moscow’s Kalinin Prospekt is overwhelming: The foreigners are coming to fill their traveling cash boxes through the sale of jeans, radios, and sport shoes; then come the Moscow inhabitants, to snap up the much-desired and otherwise unattainableWestern wares...

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The Experiment of Gorbachev: The Free-Trade Zones for the Release of the Economy

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pp. 366-368

Moscow—In the Soviet Laboratory, a new experiment is growing: the creation of free economic zones, true and proper areas of development, and accelerated industrialization, that, at the sign of deregulation and de-taxation....

Regionalization of the Russian Economy

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pp. 369-370

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Restoring the Romanovs

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pp. 371-375

This will be very hard for a non-Russian to understand, but do not be surprised if Russia restores the monarchy with a Romanov sitting on the refurbished throne. If this sounds outrageously far-fetched, it sounds that way simply....

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Russian History Shapes Today's Business Leaders

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pp. 376-379

Russia boasts a huge expanse of land, abundant natural resources, and an educated workforce. These objective political and economic factors make Russia into a world power. Despite this, Russia has an inefficient economy and...

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Russian Pacific Coast: Exciting Opportunity

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pp. 380-383

The key to this shift in policy lies in the continuing decentralization of Russia, and the strengthening political muscle of local governments. Under Soviet domination, these regions had no economic independence. Today...

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Go East, Young Man

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pp. 384-389

America was discovered because Columbus and his backers were looking for new business opportunities. With similar motives, American businessmen are now pouring into Moscow. But Moscow is not the only place where the...

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Far East: A Look into the Future

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pp. 390-391

Correspondent: A large group of prominent scientists, who are obviously rather busy, spent a month and a half working on the expedition. You spent nearly half that time traveling on the sea. Would it not be simpler to generalize...

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Siberia: Experiment without Counterpart

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pp. 392-396

While on a tour of Siberia in 1913, the Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen observed: ‘‘The day will come when Siberia will awaken, display its natural potential, and say its word.’’ In those days, with the exception of a narrow strip...

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Siberia Says No to Castro

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pp. 397-

Russian economist Vladimir Kvint visited Siberian coal mines some years ago. He and his associates were questioned by coal miners annoyed that their government was lavishing money on foreign adventures when its own people...

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Eastern Siberia Could Become Another Saudi Arabia

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pp. 398-403

Time is running out on the use of oil as a political weapon. Those who have tried to wield the weapon, Saddam Hussein and his predecessors, have counted on the fact that the Middle East sits on the world’s largest proven reserves...

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The Arctic Comes Next

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pp. 404-409

‘‘The North zone occupies nearly half the territory of the Soviet Union and in area is comparable to the United States,’’ he said. ‘‘Today it accounts for half the Soviet oil production, more than a third of our natural gas and...

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"The Polar Star above Us"

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pp. 410-419

Mankind is meant to attempt to solve the secrets and puzzles of the Unknown. There were, and always will be, explorers and prospectors whose deeds, at first, seem reckless, but then make the whole world admire them. Journeys to unknown...

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The Role of the Budget in the Intensification of the Economy of the Autonomous Republic

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pp. 420-429

The major changes under way, including the transition of the economy toward large-scale, intensive production, can hardly be conceived without a radical and general democratization of management and an enhanced...

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Daghestan–Mangyshlak: The Effectiveness of Interregional Collaboration

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pp. 430-436

The Caspian Sea has a substantial ecological and economic impact on the social and economic development of the Northern Caucasus and western regions of Kazakstan. This is due to the mineral resources in the pre-Caspian...

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Region and Industry: Modes of Interaction

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pp. 437-440

The electrotechnical complex in Minusinsk, Siberia, is growing rapidly. One of its plants produces automatic lathes for the plasma cutting of metal as well as components for warehouse technologies. Both automatic lathes and warehouse...

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Regionalism as the Key Trend in Scientific and Technological Progress

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pp. 441-461

The scientific and technological revolution of our time has led to radical structural shifts in the world economy and its industrialization, and to a growth of GNP in individual countries and groups of countries that could not be provided for by the available raw material and power resources in those...

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Key to the Region: Complex Programs

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pp. 462-466

Regional technical and R & D programs were first launched in the USSR during the Tenth 5-year Plan (1976–1980). Among those programs were two well-known projects, ‘‘Siberia’’ and ‘‘Far East.’’ These projects aimed at studying problems of the complex use of natural resources and...

Privatization and Industrial Development in Russia

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pp. 467-468

Privatization in Russia

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pp. 469-471

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Privatization in Russia Enters Phase Two

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pp. 472-477

Privatization in the former Soviet-bloc countries is the most important step toward social, political, and economic changes. Once privatization has taken place, the move to a market economy is irrevocable. The reasons for this are....

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How to Access Business Information in Russia: Information and Democracy Go Hand-in-Hand

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pp. 478-481

It is impossible for foreigners, operating in a new business environment, to make any business-related decision without access to accurate information. Currently, access to information is one of the major barriers to the development...

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Telecommunications a Booming Business: Even Siberia is within Reach

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pp. 482-486

Before the fall of communism, the Soviet Union was cut off from the world community, not just politically and economically, but also through vital communications links. Telephone connections with the world were the privilege of...

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Wreck the Information Flow and the Economy Collapses

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pp. 487-488

Leading Soviet economist Vladimir Kvint believes that the economic effects of all government decisions must be considered by politicians— apparently a radical concept in the Soviet Union. ‘‘Economic evaluation of all political decisions must, in the future, be absolutely necessary. Otherwise the...

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Red Military Time Machine Works for Capitalism: Secret Doors Open onto Privatizations of the Russian Military

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pp. 489-492

For 70 years, the largest country in the world spent almost all of its resources on its military industries. Ostensibly, these expenditures were to protect the Soviet Union’s communist achievements. In fact, they funded the most potentially dangerous aggression in the history of mankind. When the military...

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Internationalization of Russia's Metallurgy Industry

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pp. 493-496

The Soviet Union was, and Russia continues to be, the world’s largest producer of iron, steel, almost all major heavy nonferrous metals, and platinum, and one of the leading producers of gold. In former days, the entire metallurgy industry, including the black and nonferrous metals,...

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Will Russia be the Chief Oil Source of the Future?

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pp. 497-498

The northern and eastern regions of Russia contain enormous reserves of oil and gas. And they are much closer to the U.S. than the Middle East is. The Persian Gulf war demonstrated forcefully how dangerous it is for the rest of the world to depend on Middle Eastern oil. But there exists another huge...

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Problems in the Development of the Nonferrous Metal Industry in Siberia

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pp. 499-511

Siberia has vast raw material resources. In addition to huge resources of timber, oil, natural gas, nonferrous metals, and other minerals, 85% of the country’s (the USSR) coal deposits, and 60% of all its water resources are concentrated here. Developing these...

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Role of Automation in Developing Nonferrous Metallurgy in Siberia

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pp. 512-532

A considerable share of the country’s reserves of nonferrous metals— among them nickel, cobalt, platinum metals, lead, zinc, copper, molybdenum, gold, and aluminum—are located in Siberia, with its rigorous climate and exceptionally...

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It is Necessary to Increase Food Production in the Yenisey North

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pp. 533-535

In the 1950s, I had to sail regularly from Krasnoyarsk to Dudinka. Such Turukhansk piers as Lebed, Vorogovo, and Alinskoye were eagerly awaited by all passengers, both children and adults. At those piers local women...

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Food for Peace? Or for Civil War?

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pp. 536-540

Why is the Soviet Union hungry? Why does the biggest and potentially the richest country in the world have empty shelves in the stores? The hunger is real. In the United States people consume more than 53 pounds of meat per capita per year; in the USSR, if you count the bone and...

Part IV: Management Systems and Scientific Technical Progress

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pp. 541-

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Board of Director Motivation in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States

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pp. 543-546

A Western-style corporate board of directors is a very new concept in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The events of the last eight years have influenced and altered the motivation or incentive for company...

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Confronting the Soviet Management Structure: Bureaucratic, but Workable

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pp. 547-552

The Soviet process of making managerial decisions is unusual for a Western executive to comprehend, because authority often rests in different hands. Consequently, foreign business people often knock on the wrong doors,...

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Moscow Learns the Language of Business

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pp. 553-559

The focus of the business world has shifted to Moscow. With the advent of perestroika, the Soviet Union’s industrial infrastructure, the volume of its products, the extent of its debts, and the inadequacies of its accounting...

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The Relationship between Increases in Capital Investment and the Reduction in the Duration of the Implementation Phase

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pp. 560-564

The length of time required to put new technological processes and systems into use can be significantly affected by the application of the latest scientific and technical research. This application will impact both the costs of the new...

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The Process of Forming a Regional Policy on Science and Technology

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pp. 565-580

Paramount among the goals of a regional policy on science and technology is the creation of conditions, through advances in research and technology, for bolstering the health of current and future populations. By nature, it...

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Unified Scientific and Technical Policy: What and Why

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pp. 581-586

The main aim of the scientific and technical policy is to select the most promising directions and priorities in developing science and technology and apply their achievements to production, both on a large scale and effectively...

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To Accurately Determine a Course of Action: An Economist Analyzes the Results of Krasnoyarsk's Past Decade

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pp. 587-593

An extrapolation method that is popular among economists requires taking several steps backward in order to have a better perspective. For example, if you want to understand trends for the next 20 years, analyze the past 20 years...

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The Intermediary Role of Scientific/Technological Companies: From the Experience of "Sibtsvetmetavtomatika"

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pp. 594-597

The intensive development of new regions in Siberia, with its mineral wealth, forest, water, and power resources, calls for the largescale introduction of technology adapted to the conditions of the region, a constant quest...

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Separation for Production: A Key Stage in Implementing Technological Policy

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pp. 598-615

‘‘Preparation for production’’ (PP) comprises a system of measures aimed at applying the latest scientific and technical research to industry. It is the final stage of technical development and incorporates a number of diverse operations calling for systematization, general purposeful management...

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Uniform System for the Technical Preparation of Production

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pp. 616-626

Standardization is key to the acceleration of scientific and technological progress. Today, the objects of standardization are not only quality of production, documentation, and terms, but also the designing of systems and the organization and management of production. This calls for complex...

Bibliography

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pp. 627-686

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About the Author

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pp. 687-699

Dr. Vladimir Kvint is a world-renowned scholar, economist, and strategist. An award-winning author or co-author of 21 books and 550 articles and a highly sought-after expert, he is widely regarded as having an extraordinary understanding of the dynamics of global emerging markets. His activities...


E-ISBN-13: 9780823247936
Print-ISBN-13: 9780823223480
Print-ISBN-10: 0823223485

Page Count: 699
Publication Year: 2004

Research Areas

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Subject Headings

  • Investments, Foreign -- Russia (Federation).
  • Russia (Federation) -- Economic conditions -- 1991-.
  • Economic history -- 1990-.
  • Investments, Foreign.
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