Race and the Chilean Miracle
Neoliberalism, Democracy, and Indigenous Rights
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: University of Pittsburgh Press
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Title Page, Copyright Page
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I express my heartfelt appreciation to all Mapuche and Chileans who partic- ipated in this study. It is my sincere hope that this book might contribute, in however small a way, to new forms of understanding in southern Chile. Special thanks go to Jose Alywin, Ãlvaro Bello, Gabriela Calfucoy, Jaque-line Caniguan, Sergio Caniuqueo, Serena Cosgrove, Ximena Cuadra, Chris Cuomo, Kirsten Dellinger, Melissa Forbis, Susan Franceschet, Charlie Hale, ...
Chapter 1. Race and the Chilean Miracle
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Chile is often portrayed as a successful example of a peaceful transition to democracy sustained by high rates of economic growth. Enthusiasts refer to a âChilean Miracle,â the notion that free-market reforms imposed during Augusto Pinochetâs dictatorship (1973â90) put the country on the road to development and stability. They cite Chile as a success story, a model for other countries to follow. This picture, although true in some respects, con-...
Chapter 2. Contested Memories, Symbolic Violence, and the History of the Araucanía
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H istory and memory alike are socially constructed. As Barry Schwartz (2007, 588) has defined it, âcollective memory refers to the distribu-tion throughout society of beliefs, feelings, moral judgments, and knowledge about the past.â We say memory is socially constructed because, as Schwartz points out, while individuals may hold beliefs or draw judgments about the past, âthey do not know (it) singly; they know it with and against other in-...
Chapter 3. Neoliberalism and the Conflicts under the Concertación
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Neoliberal economic policies extended upon the legacy of racism and in-equality to create a situation in which conflicts over land, resources, and indigenous rights thrived throughout the 1990s and early 2000s. This chapter examines these neoliberal roots as well as how Mapuche and local elites explained the conflicts, paying special attention to how the concepts of law and legitimacy inform these differing explanations. I make two interre-...
Chapter 4. Constructing Neoliberal Multiculturalism in Chile
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The ConcertaciÃ³n responded to the conflicts with a dual approach. On the one hand, it created programs and policies that responded positively to Mapuche demands that could be construed as related to development or diversity. On the other, it harshly penalized Mapuche actions that favored principles of autonomy, self-governance, and territorial control. This pol-...
Chapter 5. Local Elites Confront Multiculturalism
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How did the Chilean public construct the Mapuche in the context of the conflicts? Large-scale surveys give contradictory impressions. While some surveys conducted in major cities (all outside the conflict zone) indi-cated endorsement of Mapuche claims (IDEP 2003), others showed support for use of stronger tactics against Mapuche activists (Libertad y Desarrollo in La Tercera 2002). One study examining attitudes in ancestral Mapuche ...
Chapter 6. Autonomy, Interculturality, and a More Inclusive Future
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In the 1970s and 1980s many Mapuche were active in the sociopolitical strug-gle to reinstate democracy in Chile. Like their Chilean counterparts, they anticipated that life under democracy would be an improvement over the brutal Pinochet dictatorship. Chileans and Mapuche alike hoped that under democracy the grip of neoliberalism would loosen, their participation would be solicited, and their opinions heard. Nearly two decades after the dicta-...
Chapter 7. Systemic Racism, Subjectivities, and Shared Futures
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In March 2011, as popular struggles erupted across the Middle East, U.S. president Barack Obama visited Chile. âAt a time when people around the world are reaching for their freedoms,â he observed, âChile shows that, yes, it is possible to transition from dictatorship to democracy, and to do so peacefullyâ (âObama in Chileâ 2011). The strength of this transitionâthe so-called Chilean Miracleâfrequently has been attributed to the neoliberal ...
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Page Count: 256
Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: Pitt Latin American Studies
Series Editor Byline: John Charles Chasteen and Catherine M. Conaghan, Editors