Race and the Chilean Miracle
Neoliberalism, Democracy, and Indigenous Rights
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: University of Pittsburgh Press
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Title Page, Copyright Page
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Chapter 1. Race and the Chilean Miracle
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Chile is often portrayed as a successful example of a peaceful transition to democracy sustained by high rates of economic growth. Enthusiasts refer to a “Chilean Miracle,” the notion that free-market reforms imposed during Augusto Pinochet’s dictatorship (1973–90) put the country on the road to development and stability. They cite Chile as a success story, a model for...
Chapter 2. Contested Memories, Symbolic Violence, and the History of the Araucanía
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History and memory alike are socially constructed. As Barry Schwartz (2007, 588) has defined it, “collective memory refers to the distribution throughout society of beliefs, feelings, moral judgments, and knowledge about the past.” We say memory is socially constructed because, as Schwartz points out, while individuals may hold beliefs or draw judgments about the...
Chapter 3. Neoliberalism and the Conflicts under the Concertación
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Neoliberal economic policies extended upon the legacy of racism and inequality to create a situation in which conflicts over land, resources, and indigenous rights thrived throughout the 1990s and early 2000s. This chapter examines these neoliberal roots as well as how Mapuche and local elites explained the conflicts, paying special attention to how the concepts of...
Chapter 4. Constructing Neoliberal Multiculturalism in Chile
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The Concertación responded to the conflicts with a dual approach. On the one hand, it created programs and policies that responded positively to Mapuche demands that could be construed as related to development or diversity. On the other, it harshly penalized Mapuche actions that favored principles of autonomy, self-governance, and territorial control. This policy...
Chapter 5. Local Elites Confront Multiculturalism
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How did the Chilean public construct the Mapuche in the context of the conflicts? Large-scale surveys give contradictory impressions. While some surveys conducted in major cities (all outside the conflict zone) indicated endorsement of Mapuche claims (IDEP 2003), others showed support for use of stronger tactics against Mapuche activists (Libertad y Desarrollo ...
Chapter 6. Autonomy, Interculturality, and a More Inclusive Future
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In the 1970s and 1980s many Mapuche were active in the sociopolitical struggle to reinstate democracy in Chile. Like their Chilean counterparts, they anticipated that life under democracy would be an improvement over the brutal Pinochet dictatorship. Chileans and Mapuche alike hoped that under democracy the grip of neoliberalism would loosen, their participation would...
Chapter 7. Systemic Racism, Subjectivities, and Shared Futures
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In March 2011, as popular struggles erupted across the Middle East, U.S. president Barack Obama visited Chile. “At a time when people around the world are reaching for their freedoms,” he observed, “Chile shows that, yes, it is possible to transition from dictatorship to democracy, and to do so peacefully” (“Obama in Chile” 2011). The strength of this transition—the ...
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Page Count: 256
Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: Pitt Latin American Studies
Series Editor Byline: John Charles Chasteen and Catherine M. Conaghan, Editors