Speaking of Flowers
Student Movements and the Making and Remembering of 1968 in Military Brazil
Publication Year: 2013
Embodying Cold War political and gendered tensions, Brazil's increasingly violent military government mounted fierce challenges to student political activity just as students were beginning to see themselves as representing an otherwise demobilized civil society. By challenging the students' political legitimacy at a pivotal moment, the dictatorship helped to ignite the student protests that exploded in 1968. In her attentive exploration of the years after 1968, Langland analyzes what the demonstrations of that year meant to later generations of Brazilian students, revealing how student activists mobilized collective memories in their subsequent political struggles.
Published by: Duke University Press
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Title Page, Copyright Page
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O√ering formal thanks to the many people and institutions who haveassisted me in this project over the years is my own small act of commem-oration: a celebration of others’ immense generosity, and, by extension, areflection on this book’s long history. I am thrilled to have the opportunitySome of the questions that first motivated this project emerged in dis-...
List of Acronyms
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Introduction: Making and Remembering 1968 in Military Brazil
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In 1968 the song known as ‘‘Pra não dizer que não falei das flores’’ (So theydon’t say I never spoke of flowers) by the singer and songwriter GeraldoVandré enjoyed immense popularity among university students and otheryoung people. Its rhythmical and lyrical invocations of street marches,encapsulated by its o≈cial title ‘‘Caminhando’’ (Walking), made this poi-...
1. Constructing the ‘‘House of Democratic Resistance’’: Authority and Authenticity in University Student Politics, 1808–1955
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Authority and Authenticity in University Student Politics, 1808–1955As university student activists gathered in Rio de Janeiro for a NationalCongress of Students in August 1951 they received a booklet to help guidetheir stay: ‘‘O Rio para o Universitário: Roteiro Turístico, Cultural e Infor-mativo’’ (Rio for university students: a touristic, cultural, and informative...
2. Professional Students and Political Polarization: Contested Revolutions, 1956–1967
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When Celia Guevara came to Brazil in late May 1961 to speak at the FederalUniversity of Pernambuco in Recife, she preceded her famous son Ernesto‘‘Che’’ Guevara by several months. In August Che, the Argentine-born revo-lutionary and Cuban minister of industry, passed through the country enroute from a meeting of the Organization of American States (oas) in...
3. From Martyrdom and Militancy to Memory: 1968 in Brazil
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On March 28, 1968, the Guanabara state police shot and killed Edson Luisde Lima Souto, a young secondary school student purportedly about toengage in a street demonstration in downtown Rio de Janeiro. Newspaperreports gave conflicting accounts as to whether the group of some threehundred to six hundred mostly secondary school students assembled out-...
4. Dark Weather: The Post–’68 Storm, 1969–1973
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...‘‘Dark Weather. Su√ocating Temperature. The air is unbreathable. The country isbeing changed by strong winds. Max. 38\C in Brasilia, Min 5\C in Laranjeiras.’’—Front-page weather report in the heavily censored Jornal do Brasil forIf the journalist Zuenir Ventura has called 1968 ‘‘the year that did not end,’’and the historian Carlos Fico has labeled it ‘‘the year that ended badly,’’ one...
5. Rebuilding the House of Memories, 1974–1985
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In October 1973, a few months after the death of Alexandre VannucchiLeme, security o≈cials detained, tortured, and eventually murdered an-other important student activist, the president of une Honestino Gui-marães.∞ Guimarães had a long history of student movement activism andimprisonment. Since 1966 the police had arrested him on at least three...
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Forty-seven years after supporters of the Brazilian military regime set fireto the une building, a democratically elected Brazilian president and for-mer regime opponent joined current and former student activists at 132Praia de Flamengo Street in Rio de Janeiro for an important rite of remem-brance and renewal. As one of his last acts before leaving o≈ce, then-...
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Page Count: 346
Illustrations: 32 photographs, 7 tables
Publication Year: 2013