Spear of the Nation
Publication Year: 2012
Published by: Ohio University Press
Title Page, Copyright
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I should like to thank Howard Barrell, Mzolisi Dyasi, Kholi Mhlana, Madeleine Fullard and Ronnie Kasrils for their comments on the manuscript, as well as the South African...
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Hailed as heroes by many South Africans, demonised as evil terrorists by others, Umkhonto weSizwe, the Spear of the Nation, is now part of history. Though the organisation no longer exists, its former members are represented by the MK Military Veterans’ Association, which still carries...
2. The turn to armed struggle, 1960–3
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It is hard to find anyone in South Africa today who will argue with conviction that the armed struggle for liberation from apartheid was not justified. This was not always the case, especially among whites. Even so, most South Africans...
3. The Wankie and Sipolilo campaigns, 1967–8
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Those who left the country for military training in the early 1960s, including the young Chris Hani, who was later to become MK Chief of Staff, did not have an easy time of it. After receiving military training in various...
4. Struggling to get home, 1969–84
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Following the Wankie and Sipolilo campaigns, the ANC held a decisive national conference at Morogoro in Tanzania in 1969 to deal with the unprecedented level of criticism and dissatisfaction within the organisation. Survivors of the Rhodesian campaigns were...
5. Reaping the whirlwind, 1984–9
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The 1980s, the third decade of the armed struggle, opened up greater opportunities for MK and the ANC than ever before and, at the same time, greater challenges. The new decade began with exciting developments inside South...
6. The end of armed struggle
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Underlying the desperate accounts of the battles, skirmishes and bombings, urban and rural, which we have described, is a great irony: that while MK cadres were being exhorted to ‘escalate the armed struggle’ in preparation...
7. A sober assessment of MK
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There is a strong case to be made that MK’s armed struggle will be remembered as an example of a just war conducted with considerable restraint. The argument is all the more compelling if the South African liberation struggle...
Sources and further reading
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Page Count: 156
Publication Year: 2012