Containing Russia's Nuclear Firebirds
Harmony and Change at the International Science and Technology Center
Publication Year: 2013
Never before have scientists encountered technology with the potential for such huge impacts on the global community, both positive and negative. For nearly two decades following the Soviet Union’s breakup into independent states, the ISTC has provided opportunities for underemployed Russian weapon scientists to redirect their talents toward civilian research. The center has championed the role of science in determining the future of civilization and has influenced nonproliferation policies of Russia and other states in the region. Most important, the center has demonstrated that modest investments can encourage scientists of many backgrounds to shun greed and violence and to take leading roles in steering the planet toward prosperity and peace.
Schweitzer contends that the United States and other western and Asian countries failed to recognize the importance, over time, of modifying their donor-recipient approach to dealing with Russia. In April 2010 the Russian government announced that it would withdraw from the ISTC agreement. After expenditures exceeding one billion dollars, the ISTC’s Moscow Science Center will soon close its doors, leaving a legacy that has benefited Russian society as well as partners from thirty-eight countries. Schweitzer argues that a broader and more sustained movement is now needed to help prevent irresponsible behavior by dissatisfied or misguided scientists and their patrons.
Published by: University of Georgia Press
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Praise, Title Page, Copyright
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Every night there came fl ying into the garden a bird that shone like the moon, with feathers like gold and its eyes like crystal which perched on the “The Russian Government informs you of its intention to terminate the pro-visional application of the agreement on the International Science and Tech-So read part of a diplomatic note addressed to the executive director of the ...
Significant Events in the History of the ISTC
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...• January: Tripartite statement by Andrei Kozyrev (Russia), Hans- Dietrich Genscher (Germany), and James Baker (United States) calling for establish-• July: Arrival of international planning group for istc at facilities on Lugan-• November: Initialing of istc Agreement by United States, Russia, Euro-pean Atomic Energy Community / European Economic Community, and ...
ONE. A Unique Experiment for Security and Prosperity
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The objective of the International Science and Technology Center shall be to give weapons scientists and engineers opportunities to redirect talents to —International agreement for establishment of the International Science The istc was among the organizations that were nominated for the Nobel Economic ch aos pr eva iled as the Soviet Union disintegrated into fi f-...
TWO. Off to a Fast Start (1994–2000)
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Nuclear scientists of all friendly countries unite. The International Science The politica l tu r moil i n Moscow in the fall of 1993 led President Boris Yeltsin to abolish the Russian Parliament (then called the Supreme So-viet) that was created when the Soviet Union splintered into fi ft een separate countries. My Russian colleagues anticipated that in the wake of this political ...
THREE. An Era of Euphoria (2001–2006)
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In the early 1990s, istc support was crucial for the institute’s survival. Now the istc is important for select groups of researchers. The center’s programs —Vice Director, Ioff e Institute of Physics, St. Petersburg, 2002One can hardly overestimate the center’s contribution to strengthening of the international scientifi c community and preparing specialists to work ...
FOUR. Unraveling of the Moscow Science Center (2007–2011)
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...istc represents exceptional nonproliferation and scientifi c research- coordination assets that should be preserved but adapted to new For years, we have been hearing about obsolescence of the istc’s scientifi c redirection mission from the Russian Government. We reached the “read- my- lips” stage of this issue some time ago. But the istc was so convenient....
FIVE. The World Market for High-Tech Expertise
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Ivan the Terrible sent 17 young men for study in Europe in order to make Russia rich and strong, but none returned. Peter the Great sent to Europe 50 courtiers, who became admirals and established the Russian Academy of The head count of Russian researchers decreased from 878,482 in 1991, to 425,954 in 2000, to 375,804 in 2008. The decrease in technicians was even ...
SIX. The Long Road to a Silicon Valley in Russia
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Rather than the science and technology sector pulling up the rest of the Russian economy, the rest of the economy pulls down the science and Research transforms money into knowledge, while innovation should Thom as Edison often sa id, “If I can’t sell it, I don’t want to invent it.”uniF6DC Both aging Russian researchers and the new generation of scientists now realize ...
SEVEN. U.S.-Russia Bilateral Engagement Programs
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Our Biological Engagement Program endeavors to transfer sustainable programs to host governments and establish a culture of responsibility among dual- use scientists, while also securing high- risk pathogens.As the istc was bei ng e sta blished in the early 1990s, a number of U.S. government departments and agencies were rapidly increasing their ex-...
EIGHT. The Nuclear File
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U.S. pays millions to Russian scientists not to sell A- secrets.For now, sound economic arguments for opening the closed nuclear cities in the Urals are trumped by national security concerns and by nostalgia for W hen diplom ats first r a ised the concept in 1991 of an international center to support redirection of Russian weapons scientists’ expertise to civil-...
NINE. The Biosecurity File
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We don’t know more about the biological weapons threat than we did fi ve The United States should be less concerned that terrorists will become biologists and far more concerned that biologists will become terrorists.—U.S. Commission on Prevention of Proliferation and Terrorism, 2008Rapid advances in the biological sciences and biotechnology hold the prom-...
TEN. The Aerospace File
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Missile specialists make weapons to deter, not to commit, aggression. They view signs of weakness in the nation’s missile potential as threatening Russia Nineteen aeronautics proposals by fi ft een Russian institutions have been recently approved and now are open for funding by interested parties.M a n y stor ie s w er e circu l ati ng in Russia during the early days of ...
ELEVEN. Measuring Success
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Simple measurements to evaluate success of some programs may not be applicable. The istc must oft en rely on the collective sense of the parties, Institutes with istc support use as their metric the number of international grants they receive—the more the better. Our metric is the number of international grants that they need to get back on their feet—the fewer the ...
TWELVE. Replicating istc Experiences While Avoiding Pitfalls
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The Science and Technology Center in Ukraine has been a model of how nations work together for the common good. For 15 years, it has pursued peaceful science by researchers who had been responsible for weapons of —Former Chairman of the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine Lessons learned by the istc and the stcu could be adapted to shape ...
TRIRTEEN. The Way Forward
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Every new nuclear armed state will add to the risks of accidents or miscalculations as well as deliberate use of these weapons and may encourage more states to acquire nuclear weapons to avoid being left The world has changed. Lines are now blurred: lines between nations, regions, and peoples; lines between disciplines, tools and applications ...
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Tsar Vyslav rejoiced greatly to see his two sons. To Tsarevitch Dimitri, who had brought him the fi rebird, he gave half of his Tsardom, and Tsarevitch Nobel P.sceace P.scrize or not, government offi cials around the world have rec-ognized the unique role that the istc has played in restraining fl ocks of nuclear The Russian government has decreed that the country’s involvement in the ...
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...istc Scientifi c Advisory Committee (sac) at Obninsk Engineering Center, 2007.Senators Barack Obama and Richard Lugar visit istc projects at All-Russia Scientifi c Research Project involving gas analyzer based on diode lasers, Institute of General Physics, Experiments with intelligent robots for nuclear and environmental hazards, Central Research and Development Institute of Robotics and Technical Cybernetics, Moscow, ...
APPENDIX A. Agreement Establishing an International Science and Technology Center
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The European Atomic Energy Community and European Economic Community, act-ing as one party, and the United States of America, Japan and the Russian Federation:Reaffi rming the need to prevent the proliferation of technologies and expertise related to weapons of mass destruction—nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons;Taking note of the present critical period in the states of the Commonwealth of In-...
APPENDIX B. Protocol on the Provisional Application of the Agreement Establishing an International Science and Technology Center
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The United States of America, Japan, the Russian Federation, and the European Atomic Energy Community and the European Community, acting as one party, hereinaft er re-ferred to as the “Signatory Parties,” recognizing the importance of the Agreement Estab-lishing an International Science and Technology Center, signed in Moscow on Novem-1. The Agreement shall be provisionally applied in accordance with its terms by ...
APPENDIX C. President Dmitry Medvedev’s Decree No. 534, August 11, 2010
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...“On the Withdrawal of the Russian Federation from the Nov. 27, 1992, Agreement on the Establishment of the International Science and Technology Center and from the Dec. 27, 1992, Protocol on the Temporary 1. The President accepts the proposal of the Government of Russia on the Russian Federation’s withdrawal from the Agreement from Nov. 27, 1992, on establishment ...
APPENDIX D. Diplomatic Note on Russian Withdrawal from the ISTC Agreement and Protocol
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The Ministry of Foreign Aff airs of the Russian Federation extends its respect to the Executive Director of the International Science and Technology Center (hereinaft er—istc) and has the honor to report on the following, referring to the Agreement Estab-lishing the International Science and Technology Center of 27 November 1992 (here-inaft er—the Agreement) and to the Protocol of 27 December 1993 on the Provisional ...
APPENDIX E. ISTC Project Funding and Benefi ciary Scientists, 1994–2011
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Page Count: 288
Illustrations: 16 b&w photos, 5 tables, 7 figures
Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: Studies in Security and International Affairs
Series Editor Byline: Gary K. Bertsch and Howard J. Wiarda, Series Editors