Norm Dynamics in Multilateral Arms Control
Interests, Conflicts, and Justice
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: University of Georgia Press
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Title Page, Series Page, Copyright
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List of Abbreviations and Acronyms
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Introduction. Where It All Began
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While at the United Nations General Assembly Hall in New York City in April 1995, I was sitting on the backbench of the German delegation to the Review and Extension Conference of the parties to the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty (NPT), proudly serving as an “expert advisor” on my country’s negotiation team. Listening to the general debate, the first phase of the...
Chapter One. Theoretical Approaches in Norm Dynamics
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This chapter elaborates our understanding of “norms,” introduces the concept of “norm dynamics,” and establishes the central role of norm contestedness/ contestability for the dynamic evolution of norms and regimes. We deal with individual norms here, but even more so with regimes as “sets of principles, norms, rules and decision- making procedures” (Krasner 1983, 2), ...
Part I. Norm Conflicts and Norm Dynamics
Chapter Two. Regime Conflicts and Norm Dynamics: Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons
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Efforts to control the spread of and eventually eliminate biological (BW), chemical (CW), and nuclear weapons (NW) are referred to under the general heading “weapons of mass destruction” (WMD) regimes. Although the effects of and the opportunities to defend against these types of weapons differ widely, the global discourse has lumped them together as indiscriminate...
Chapter Three. Humanitarian Arms Control: The Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Treaty, the Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons, and the Convention on Cluster Munitions
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The decade of “human security” was in many respects constitutive for humanitarian arms control in the 1990s (Shaw, MacLean, and Black 2006, 3). The change in security policy perspectives that unfolded during this period encouraged new forms of arms control and disarmament. The 1997 Anti- Personnel Mine Ban Treaty (MBT), also called the Ottawa Convention, the...
Part II. External Drivers of Norm Dynamics
Chapter Four. Arms Control Norms and Technology
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War Is, as Martin van Creveld (1991, 1) puts it, “completely permeated by technology and governed by it.” Technological innovations, be it through increasing precision, lethality and range of weapons, or decreased defensibility against them, have led to an increase in the destructiveness of war that culminated in the “mechanised slaughter of the twentieth- century conflicts”...
Chapter Five. Winds of Change: Exogenous Events and Trends as Norm Triggers (or Norm Killers)
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Both long- term trends in the international system and individual events, shocks, or traumas of a certain magnitude hold potential for triggering norm change in arms control regimes. They might challenge dominant ideas and ideological paradigms, put new issues on the table that call for collective action, alter cost-benefit calculations of member states, or shake the international...
Part III. Norm Entrepreneurs as Drivers of Norm Dynamics
Chapter Six. Established and Rising Great Powers: The United States, Russia, China, and India
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Theories of international relations conventionally regard great powers as the most important actors in international politics. Research on norms, however, has placed little emphasis on their activities (see chapter 1). Research on great powers, in turn, has for the most part neglected the role of norms and focused mainly on material aspects. Highlighting the role of the...
Chapter Seven. Good International Citizens: Canada, Germany, and Sweden
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The phrase good international citizenship was coined by former Australian foreign minister Gareth Evans in the late 1980s (Hanson 1999, 1). It denotes states that conduct an ethically motivated foreign policy that blends realist with idealist prescriptions and places internationalism and the “common good” ahead of the pursuit of narrow material interests...
Chapter Eight. Non-aligned Reformers and Revolutionaries: Egypt, South Africa, Iran, and North Korea
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The concept of norm entrepreneurship has so far remained restricted to analyzing actors engaged in the promotion of supposedly “good” norms and working toward reproducing or incrementally reforming the prevalent normative order with a view to enhance its quality and efficiency (see chapter 1)—their attitude may thus be described as affirmative. Yet, as “agents of...
Chapter Nine. Beyond the State: Nongovernmental Organizations, the European Union, and the United Nations
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No study of norm entrepreneurs would be complete without considering the role of non state actors who have acquired a reputation as serious players in International Relations (Keck and Sikkink 1998; Björkdahl 2002, 45–51). The growth of transnational civil society, as well as international institutions above the state level, and its international impact has been one of the...
Conclusion. Agency Is Central
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The concluding chapter draws together the results of our empirical investigations with a view to understanding the interaction between the various factors influencing norm evolution or stagnation. It starts with a description of the various modes in which norm change takes place in the regimes (section two). It then considers the impact of norm conflicts, notably those with...
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Page Count: 400
Illustrations: 2 tables
Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: Studies in Security and International Affairs