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Atlanta and Environs

A Chronicle of Its People and Events, 1880s-1930s

Franklin M. Garrett

Publication Year: 1969

Atlanta and Environs is, in every way, an exhaustive history of the Atlanta Area from the time of its settlement in the 1820s through the 1970s. Volumes I and II, together more than two thousand pages in length, represent a quarter century of research by their author, Franklin M. Garrett a man called "a walking encyclopedia on Atlanta history" by the Atlanta Journal-Constitution. With the publication of Volume III, by Harold H. Martin, this chronicle of the South's most vibrant city incorporates the spectacular growth and enterprise that have characterized Atlanta in recent decades.

The work is arranged chronologically, with a section devoted to each decade, a chapter to each year. Volume I covers the history of Atlanta and its people up to 1880 ranging from the city's founding as "Terminus" through its Civil War destruction and subsequent phoenixlike rebirth. Volume II details Atlanta's development from 1880 through the 1930s including occurrences of such diversity as the development of the Coca-Cola Company and the Atlanta premiere of Gone with the Wind. Taking up the city's fortunes in the 1940s, Volume III spans the years of Atlanta's greatest growth. Tracing the rise of new building on the downtown skyline and the construction of Hartsfield International Airport on the city's perimeter, covering the politics at City Hall and the box scores of Atlanta's new baseball team, recounting the changing terms of race relations and the city's growing support of the arts, the last volume of Atlanta and Environs documents the maturation of the South's preeminent city.

Published by: University of Georgia Press

Title Page, Copyright Page

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Volume II

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pp. ix

Section IX: The Eighteen-Eighties

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pp. 1-203

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Chapter 58: 1880

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pp. 1-14

It is doubtful if any city in the United States changed physically to a greater extent than Atlanta during the decade of the 1870's. Though its rebuilding from the debacle of the 1864 got well under way during the late sixties, the ten years from 1870 to 1880 witnessed the almost complete...

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Chapter 59: 1881

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pp. 15-36

The election for mayor held December 1, 1880, was close and spirited. James W. English, the losing candidate of two* years before, emerged the victor this time, with 1,433 votes against 1,379 for Hannibal I. Kimball. Banker Robert J. Lowry won the post of alderman-at-large over...

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Chapter 60: 1882

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pp. 37-52

The municipal election, held December 7, 1881, resulted in the choice of Thomas G. Healey, as alderman-at-large, and the following new councilmen: First ward, Dr. Wesley D. Mitchell; second ward, Frank T. Ryan; third ward, Zachry W. Adamson; fourth ward, William H. Howell, and fifth...

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Chapter 61: 1883

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pp. 53-68

In the election for mayor to serve during 1883 and 1884, held on December 6, 1882, local voters had a choice between a lawyer, John B. Goodwin; a physician, Dr. Elisha J. Roach, and a journalist, John H. Seals, editor of the "Sunny South"...

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Chapter 62: 1884

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pp. 69-86

EIGHTEEN EIGHTY-FOUR had a wintry beginning in Atlanta. On Tuesday, January 8th, S. P. Richards observed, "we had good sleighing the snow being 11/2 inches deep and remaining several days. A good many impromptu sleds and several nice cutters were jingling...

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Chapter 63: 1885

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pp. 87-105

Voters in the municipal election held December 3, 1884, had a choice between a "Citizens' Ticket," headed by George Hillyer, attorney-at-law, recently succeeded as judge of the Superior Court by William R. Hammond, and a "Peoples' Ticket," headed by Reuben Arnold...

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Chapter 64: 1886

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pp. 106-129

EVERY American city has spawned an assortment of quaint, eccentric and to some extent pathetic characters who, by their oddness earn a not altogether enviable niche in local annals. Two of Atlanta's most notorious residents during the decade of the eighties were...

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Chapter 65: 1887

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pp. 130-163

The sole issue in the municipal election of December 1, 1886, was prohibition. While it is true that Fulton County voted dry by a small majority in 1885, and the saloons were closed on July 1, 1886, the wets were by no means resigned to the permanence of the drought. As the result of a compromise movement in the latter part of 1886, a fusion ticket was developed...

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Chapter 66: 1888

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pp. 164-178

The municipal election of December 7, 1887, resulted in the appearance of two new aldermen-at-large in council, and one new councilman from each ward. Albert Howell and Jacob Haas defeated H. C. Stockdell and T. D Meador for the aldermanic positions. The new councilmen were:...

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Chapter 67: 1889

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pp. 179-203

IN PHYSICAL assets, the City of Atlanta, on January 1, 1889, was worth nearly half a million. Following is the schedule...

Section X: The Eighteen-Nineties

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pp. 204-386

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Chapter 68: 1890

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pp. 204-225

The creed of Henry W. Grady and of the decade of the 'eighties had been: "Industrialization of the South; glorification of the capitalist and his way of life; political, economic and cultural unity between the South and the East; rigid subordination of class conflict in the South to the...

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Chapter 69: 1891

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pp. 226-248

ON DECEMBER 3, 1890, William A. Hemphill, Business Manager of the Constitution Publishing Company and Democratic candidate for mayor, swamped his opponent, a Negro named McKinley...

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Chapter 70: 1892

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pp. 249-273

WILLIAM A. HEMPHILL again headed the city government during 1892, with Alderman Augustus M. Reinhardt serving as mayor pro tem. Two new aldermen, W. Wallace Boyd, secretary and treasurer of the Van Winkle Gin & Machine Company, and Jarnes M. Stephens, took their...

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Chapter 71: 1893

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pp. 274-293

EIGHTEEN NINETY-THREE, with its financial stress and "Black Week," was destined to be a rugged year in Atlanta. The weather itself, at the beginning of the year seemed to herald the grim events ahead...

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Chapter 72: 1894

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pp. 294-305

The gubernatorial campaign of 1894 was hotly contested. Two Democratic candidates entered the field, William Y. Atkinson, of Coweta County, former Speaker and for four years chairman of the State Democratic Committee; and General Clement A. Evans, of Atlanta, a gallant Confederate...

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Chapter 73: 1895

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pp. 306-333

The city primary held on October 3, 1894, for officers to serve during 1895 was unique. Since Atlanta's first mayor, Moses Formwalt, and his council of six, were elected in January, 1848, the chief executive and council members had been chosen by popular vote. Ministerial officers were...

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Chapter 74: 1896

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pp. 334-344

The presidential election of 1896 brought no elation to the South, since a Republican succeeded Democrat Grover Cleveland. Governor William McKinley, of Ohio, a gold standard, high tariff man, defeated the eloquent free silver advocate, William Jennings Bryan,...

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Chapter 75: 1897

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pp. 345-352

The city election of December 2, 1896, for officers to serve during the ensuing two years was one of the most quiet affairs of its kind ever held in Atlanta. Less than 2,500 votes were polled....

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Chapter 76: 1898

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pp. 353-372

CHARLES A. COLLIER, mayor of Atlanta during 1897, served also through the Spanish-American war year of 1898. And, as usual two new aldermen and one new councilman from each ward were elected for the year to succeed those whose terms had expired. The aldermen were...

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Chapter 77: 1899

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pp. 373-386

ON JANUARY 2, 1899, James G. Woodward was sworn in as mayor of Atlanta, having defeated attorney Edmund W. Martin for the office in the primary of October, 1898. The election of Mr. Woodward was a distinct recognition of the growing power of organized labor in Atlanta...

Section XI: 1900-1909

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pp. 387-555

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Chapter 78: 1900

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pp. 387-401

Monday, January 1, 1900, the first day of a new century—the only time Atlanta has witnessed such an event. Older southern cities saw the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries, but then Atlanta was four decades in the future. Now it was a...

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Chapter 79: 1901

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pp. 402-419

BY THE turn of the century, the City of Atlanta had become a million-dollar enterprise. Early in 1901 Comptroller Goldsmith piled a financial statement, showing the condition of the city close of 1900. It is interesting to...

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Chapter 80: 1902

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pp. 420-436

LIVINGSTON MIMS continued in office as Mayor during 1902, but as usual the oldest half of council, by seniority, retired, and an equal number of new members were sworn in as the year started. The new aldermen were former Mayor James G. Woodward...

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Chapter 81: 1903

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pp. 437-453

AS THE result of a tough and hard fought campaign during September, 1902, for a mayor to serve Atlanta during 1903 and 1904, Captain Evan P. Howell defeated Mayor Pro Tem Harvey Johnson and Ex-Mayor and Alderman James G....

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Chapter 82: 1904

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pp. 454-471

The national campaign for the election of a president in 1904 had the usual features, in Georgia, of a state convention with nominations for governor and state officers. Governor Joseph M. Terrell was re-elected on a platform advocating a reduction of the tax rate....

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Chapter 83: 1905

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pp. 472-491

The most sought-after spot in the city of Atlanta during the early fall of 1904 was the mayor's chair. Five candidates, including two former mayors, fought white hot campaigns to occupy that spot during 1905 and 1906. The two former occupants were John B. Goodwin and James...

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Chapter 84: 1906

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pp. 492-505

NINETEEN-SIX brought trials and tribulations to at least two American mayors—San Francisco's, by earthquake and fire—Atlanta's, by inflamed human passions in the form of a race riot. More about the...

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Chapter 85: 1907

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pp. 506-518

While the race for governor between Hoke Smith and Clark Howell held the center of the stage in the election of August 22, 1906, there were a number of other performances in the direction of both wings. Walthall R. "Cap" Joyner, Atlanta's fire chief since 1885, was elected...

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Chapter 86: 1908

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pp. 519-534

FOLLOWING his successful but hard-won victory for the governorship over Clark Howell in 1906, Hoke Smith set about energetically to carry out his campaign promises. In view of this fact, and the precedent in (Georgia of giving a successful governor an endorsement...

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Chapter 87: 1909

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pp. 535-555

THREE candidates entered the race for mayor in the city primary of September 24, 1908, to serve during 1909 and 1910. They were James G. Woodward, former mayor; Joseph Hirsch, and Thomas H. Goodwin, a former candidate for the post. When the votes were in, Woodward had won...

Section XII: 1910-1919

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pp. 556-774

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Chapter 88: 1910

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pp. 556-572

The extensive growth of Atlanta and Fulton County during the first decade of the twentieth century was reflected in the 1910 census figures. While the State of Georgia had a total increment in population for the decade of 382,790, Fulton County went from 117,363 in 1900 to 177,733 in...

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Chapter 89: 1911

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pp. 573-588

After a highly successful and progressive term as mayor during 1909 and 1910, Robert F. Maddox, it will be remembered, did not choose to run for the 1911-1912 term, though the legislature had made it possible for him to succeed...

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Chapter 90: 1912

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pp. 589-600

COURTLAND S. WINN continued to preside over Atlanta's municipal affairs during 1912, though the first of the year brought a number of new faces to the city council. The new aldermen were...

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Chapter 91: 1913

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pp. 601-630

The indefatigable James G. Woodward again entered the lists for mayor 'in the primary of October 2, 1912, to serve the city during 1913 and 1914. This time he had three opponents, Aldine Chambers, an attorney; Dr. George Brown, and Steve R. Johnston, a real estate man...

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Chapter 92: 1914

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pp. 631-656

JAMES G. WOODWARD continued as mayor of Atlanta during 1914, but as usual the first of the year brought some new blood to Council. Newly elected aldermen were...

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Chapter 93: 1915

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pp. 657-672

Re-elected without opposition in the city primary of September, 1914, Mayor Woodward again took the oath of office on January 4, 1915, and for the fourth, though not consecutive time, entered upon his duties as the city government's executive...

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Chapter 94: 1916

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pp. 673-696

Former Atlanta citizen Woodrow Wilson, in spite of his fine record, had no easy victory for re-election as president in 1916. The Republican party, reunited after its split in 1912, fought a vigorous fight with a strong candidate, Charles Evans Hughes. The many achievements of the...

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Chapter 95: 1917

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pp. 697-726

The 1916 campaign for mayor was analogous to that of 1908 in that both times a prominent and wealthy citizen, with no particular desire for the office, was literally "drafted." Both served only one term and both left office with city finances in the black where...

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Chapter 96: 1918

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pp. 727-754

Atlanta faced the New Year with firm stride and with eyes toward the front. New Year resolutions of well-known citizens showed a general centiment of united purpose to help one another and, above all, to help win the war....

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Chapter 97: 1919

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pp. 755-774

The municipal primary of July 10, 1918, was featured by a four-cornered race for the office of mayor to succeed Asa G. Candler, and to serve during 1919 and 1920. Aspirants to the position were the old perennial, James G. Woodward, who had first served the city as mayor nearly 20 years...

Section XIII: Recent Years

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pp. 775-865

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Chapter 98: The Nineteen-Twenties (1920)

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pp. 775-865

Late returning members of the A.E.F. found Atlanta, along with the rest of OF the country, legally dry, the Prohibition Amendment to the national constitution having taken effect on January 16, 1920. They discovered that it was a crime for a man to do more than sing...

Section XIV: Recent Years

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pp. 866-1009

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Chapter 99: The Nineteen-Thirties (1930)

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pp. 866-1001

It can almost be said that modern Atlanta emerged from the decade of the 1920's. For sheer volume of building, public and private, business and residential, no peace-time decade in the city's history approached it. Only the war-time 1940's were on a par. In marked contrast to the booming 20's were...

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Chapter 100: Epilogue

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pp. 1002-1009

A DETAILED history of the years since 1939 must, of necessity, be left to a future historian. The deadline for the publication of this history, the writing of which occupied four years of unrelenting labor, plus years of research, is long past....


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pp. 1011-1018


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pp. 1019-1070

E-ISBN-13: 9780820302645

Page Count: 1080
Illustrations: 72 b&w photos, 3 maps
Publication Year: 1969