Cultural Forests of the Amazon
A Historical Ecology of People and Their Landscapes
Publication Year: 2013
Published by: The University of Alabama Press
Title Page, Copyright
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The point of this book is to share certain insights I have had in researching and thinking about Amazonian forests during the past quarter century. I use the term Amazon as the English name of the river that has the greatest water volume in the world, as well as to label the entire land surface it drains and the adjoining hinterlands. ...
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This book came together in part because of a colleague’s advice some years back. She suggested my papers were scattered and hard to find and that it would be useful for those who might be interested in reading them if they were reprinted in a single volume. ...
Part I. Landscape Transformations
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The following three chapters contain background data on the emergence of anthropogenic forests in the Amazon region, before these and natural (or high) forests were subjected to the ravages of modern industrial agriculture, commercial logging, and conversion to bovine pasturelands. ...
1. Villages of Vines and Trees
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The Ka’apor cultural consultants whom I considered to be the most knowledgeable on the subject of forest types and vegetative associations told me our destination, the old growth forest, looked like a true forest, but that it was in reality an old village, long abandoned by any human occupants. ...
2. An Estimate of Anthropogenesis
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Scientists and laymen alike most often perceive Amazonia as being one of the primordial cores of earthly nature. Remarkably few studies by scientists in any field have embraced the possibility that large portions of Amazonian forests manifest cultural histories. ...
3. Comparison of High and Fallow Forests
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A scheme that pigeonholes Amazonian forests as being somehow pristine—the “wilderness” or selvas—has dominated the Western scientific as well as popular imagination since at least the nineteenth century. Most theories in cultural ecology tend to evade whether indigenous societies and technologies, in fact, might have transformed the Amazonian wilderness permanently. ...
Part II. Contact and Attrition
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By the beginning of the twenty-first century, a definitive picture was beginning to emerge of indigenous occupations of diverse landscapes in Amazonia. It was becoming clear that the concept of forests that had been altered in terms of their soils and biota by indigenous peoples over hundreds of years was not only plausible, but even likely. ...
4. People of the Fallow Forest
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Ecological studies often presume that the habitats of lowland South American foragers are somehow “natural” or pristine. Modern foragers (hunter-gatherers) are etched in anthropological minds as being the few remaining people of the earth who use no agriculture. ...
5. Vanishing Plant Names
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Although a transition from horticultural to foraging society may be seen as far less common than the development of horticulture in a slow process that began with foraging as the exclusive means of human subsistence (Clastres 1989, 201; Gellner 1988), an increasing amount of empirical work is suggesting that such a transition has occurred repeatedly in the forested lowlands of South America. ...
6. Conquest and Migration
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Amazonian environments present human languages with a formidable job: symbolic representations of a vast domain of visible, organismic minutiae. If languages adapt to people and their environments—if languages resemble viruses in their relationship to people through time (Deacon 1997, 112)—the biological richness of the environment in which they occur should be partly evident in vocabulary. ...
Part III. Indigenous Savoir Faire
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Traditional knowledge is a fragile phenomenon, as we have seen, in which loss of agriculture, attrition in knowledge about plants and animals, disappearance of terms for biota and resources, and even the ability to make fire have occurred among native peoples over time as a result of external contacts and forces. ...
7. From Their Point of View
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Amazonia is that region drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries together with adjacent lowlands. It represents about 4 percent of the earth’s land surface. It is roughly the size of the contiguous forty-eight U.S. states or the island continent of Australia. ...
8. Retention of Traditional Knowledge
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In defining traditional knowledge of any sort, one of the components is age: tradition implies antiquity. Traditional ethnobiological knowledge (TEK) in Amazonia, for the present purpose, denotes specifically pre-Columbian objects of understanding that have survived to be documented ethnographically. ...
9. Confection, Inflection
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Historical ecology is a perspective on relations between people and the environment that, in principle, envisions how historical phenomena transform landscapes and how such transformations become conditioned and understood through local knowledge, behavior, and culture over time. ...
Part IV. Dimensions of Diversity
In these two final chapters, I engage the question of biological and ecological diversity, where it comes from in specific Amazonian contexts, and how traditional technologies of the past and present can account for it, via an initial premise of human-mediated disturbance of natural habitats. ...
10. Discernment of Environmental Variation
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This chapter concerns how systems of traditional knowledge (TK) encode and classify the accumulated impacts of the human species on the formation and transformation of Amazonian landscapes over time. The most significant of these impacts resulted from agrarian technologies. Humans have lived in the Amazon region for thousands of years. ...
11. Rethinking the Landscape
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The preceding pages of this book have made a case for recognition of cultural forests in the Amazon Basin. Cultural forests exist, though they have not tended to be categorized by their particular human signature in ecological and biological science. To ignore the human factor in the formation of these forests is not only to discard history, and environmental history in particular, ...
Appendix I. Guajá Generic Plant Names
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Appendix II. Trees of the Anthropogenic Forest (taper)
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Page Count: 288
Illustrations: 14 illustrations
Publication Year: 2013
Series Editor Byline: John Smith, Will Wordsworth