Free People of Color and the Spanish Legacy in Antebellum Florida
Publication Year: 2013
Heaven’s Soldiers chronicles the history of a community of free people of African descent who lived and thrived, while resisting the constraints of legal bondage, in East Florida in the four decades leading up to the Civil War.
Published by: The University of Alabama Press
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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
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I owe a huge debt to Dr. Idus A. Newby, professor emeritus at the University of Hawai’i, for devoting a significant amount of his retirement time to assist-ing me in the early stages of this project. Drs. Marcus Daniel, Margot Hen-riksen, Robert McGlone, Miles Jackson, and karen Jolly of the University of Hawai’i also gave me the benefit of their expertise. The late Dr. John P. Har-...
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This study focuses on one group of Af ri can Ameri cans who struggled to “make it” in an ethnically diverse slave-owning community. It is about agency, memory, and what one historian has called the “hidden transcript of resis-tance” by oppressed people. It seeks to retrieve “previously suppressed ver-sions of the past” by illuminating interior worlds of the “Inarticulate.”1 The ...
1. Looking Backward and Forward
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In 1868, Eliza M. Whitwell, the quadroon granddaughter of George J. F. Clarke, a former lieutenant governor of Spanish East Florida, critiqued ante-bellum US policy toward free persons of color in a bitter letter to the promi-nent St. Augustine physician, John Peck. The “good old Flag of Spain,” she wrote, “enslaved none but the slaves giving equal rights & privileges to all as ...
2. The 1820s: Anxious Optimism
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At least 145 of the Spanish monarch’s free black subjects sailed away from St. Augustine to Cuba between 1821 and 1827.1 They saw the Ameri can re-gime’s advent as an impending disaster. Those who opted to remain har-bored strong attachments to their land, along with a remarkable faith that they could prosper under US rule, despite the fact that Wash ing ton long had ...
3. The 1830s: Manumission, Property, and Family
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National, local, and international events conspired against St. Johns County’s free people of color during the 1830s. In 1829, a black man, David Walker, sanctioned servile insurrection in his Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World. The virginia bondsman, Nat Turner, led his followers to slaughter more than fifty whites in 1831. Additional slave unrest followed in the South. ...
4. The Second Seminole War
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When the Second Seminole War (1835–1842) erupted, free blacks were able to enlist in the militia. Between 1835 and 1838, in accordance with family and Spanish East Florida tradition, William Clarke joined his white neigh bors’ struggle against the Indians and their black allies. From 14 No vem ber 1835, until 20 February 1836, he volunteered as a private in Captain Benjamin Put-...
5. Restricted Manumission, Migrations, and Antimiscegenation
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Florida lawmakers sought to complete their victory against black fighting men by launching a vigorous attack on manumission in 1842. The sad out-come of the slave Jimmy Gibbs’s free dom bid (which began in 1839 when his owner agreed to sell the black man to a master who would emancipate him so that he could remain united to his St. Augustine family) vividly dis-...
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6. Preserving Spanish Days: Marriage and Manumission
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One Spanish-era legacy that persisted, although with muted or at least veiled advantages, was familial bonds with whites. Interracial relationships, how-ever, occurred more surreptitiously and with less social pressure on white fa-thers to live up to their responsibilities. On 23 Sep tem ber 1847, Robert R. Reid informed George Burt that “Francis Forward was caught last night very ...
7. The Black Martial Heritage
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The rise of a statewide romanticization of the Hispanic past starting in the late 1840s certainly worked in blacks’ favor in their efforts to preserve Span-ish days, as did the adjudication of the Patriot War claims.1 These two factors were important for bolstering memories of the military traditions of St. Johns County’s community of color. In fact, black veterans were able to publicly tes-...
8. Land, Paternalism, and Laws
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Free black landownership had badly eroded by the end of the antebellum pe-riod. In order to establish the context for an investigation of the US attack on this Spanish- era pillar of liberty, it is useful to survey St. Johns County’s de-mography and economy. The number of free people of color in St. Augustine, the county seat and center for this population, dropped from 126 in 1830 to ...
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Page Count: 245
Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: Atlantic Crossings
Series Editor Byline: Rafe Blaufarb