Rethinking the Creek War and the War of 1812
Publication Year: 2012
Susan M. Abram / Kathryn E. Holland Braund/ Robert P. Collins / Gregory Evans Dowd /
Published by: The University of Alabama Press
Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
Download PDF (97.1 KB)
List of Illustrations
Download PDF (66.0 KB)
Foreword A Deliberate Passion Creating and Commemorating the First National Park in Alabama
Download PDF (157.4 KB)
Horseshoe Bend is one of only four National Park Service units primarily focused on the period of the War of 1812. It is the only national park unit east of the Mississippi that commemorates a battle between US and American Indian forces. It is the site of the highest loss of American Indian life in a single battle in US history...
Download PDF (100.0 KB)
Almost two hundred years ago, the territory that would become Alabama was both ancient homeland and new frontier. In its forests and meadowlands, along its creeks and rivers, in its towns and forts and wilderness, a complex network of allegiances and agendas were playing out. In the early 1800s, the fabric of that...
Download PDF (228.7 KB)
I would like to thank Ove Jensen, my friend and ally in this endeavor, for his vision and unwavering determination to bring historical scholarship and the public together. Ove’s zeal and devotion to Horseshoe Bend National Military Park inspired me from the moment we first met and his continuing service to one of the Creek people’s most...
Download PDF (154.8 KB)
As the corn was ripening in July 1813, the Creek people were engulfed by what Benjamin Hawkins termed a “rage of Frenzy.”1 Hawkins, who served as the United States’ representative to the Creeks, might better have described it as a frenzy of rage, and a good deal of it was of his own making. Hawkins seemed oblivious to the...
1. Causalities and Consequences of the Creek War: A Modern Creek Perspective
Download PDF (285.0 KB)
The Creek War of 1813–1814 began as a civil war between two factions within the Creek Confederacy. In the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, Euro-American influences and encroachments were producing profound changes in the culture of...
2. Thinking outside the Circle: Tecumseh’s 1811 Mission
Download PDF (300.4 KB)
According to long-standing conventions, challenged but not overthrown in the late twentieth century, Tecumseh’s 1811 visit was a revolutionary departure from traditional tribal thinking, was that of a secular statesman who at some level stood apart from his brother’s spiritual movement, and was echoed by earthquakes...
3. “A Packet from Canada”: Telling Conspiracy Stories on the 1813 Creek Frontier
Download PDF (291.7 KB)
The Creek War is commonly said to have begun with the Battle of Burnt Corn, a surprise attack by Mississippi territorial militia on a party of Red Stick Creeks that ended in an unexpected defeat of the attackers. The battle is conventionally understood to have raised Red Stick expectations of victory...
4. Red Sticks
Download PDF (303.7 KB)
In July 1813, Creek agent Benjamin Hawkins sent a talk to the Creek Indians, whom he feared were aggrieved to the point of war, noting, “I hear you are preparing yourselves for war. I hear you have taken part with the prophets. . . . I hear you have begun the war dance, made your war clubs, and are for war with the white people...
5. Before Horseshoe: Andrew Jackson’s Campaigns in the Creek War Prior to Horseshoe Bend
Download PDF (317.0 KB)
An anxious Andrew Jackson, writing hurriedly to his wife from Fort Strother in early March 1814, told her he was “buried in preparations for a movement from this place,” a movement he promised would “put a speedy end to the Creek war.” “As soon as it is done,” he vowed, “I shall without delay return to your arms.”1 Absent from...
6. Cherokees in the Creek War: A Band of Brothers
Download PDF (308.1 KB)
In July 1813, civil war erupted among the Creeks, southern neighbors of the Cherokees. A disaffected faction labeled as the Red Sticks opposed the increasing US influence in the Creek National Council and its usurpation of clan authority. Although the Cherokees had often considered the Creeks as enemies, many had fought...
7. Horseshoe Bend: A Living Memorial
Download PDF (255.6 KB)
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park is one of 392 units in the National Park System and one of only two dozen battlefield or military parks. It is the only national military park in Alabama. The 2,040-acre park receives some fifty to sixty thousand visitors annually. Most people come to enjoy the serene landscape, view wildlife...
8. Fort Jackson and the Aftermath
Download PDF (239.8 KB)
The battle at the Horseshoe on March 27, 1814, is almost invariably described as the end of the Creek War, the final climactic act of an exceptionally violent though—at barely seven months—brief conflict between the United States and a large segment of the Creek Nation. In its immediate aftermath,...
9. “We Bleed Our Enemies in Such Cases to Give Them Their Senses”: Americans’ Unrelenting Wars on the Indians of the Trans-Appalachian West, 1810–1814
Download PDF (198.9 KB)
This chapter addresses the unrelenting wars that Americans waged in the early 1810s against the Indians of the trans-A ppalachian West. Two major Indian conflicts—the Northwest Indian War of 1810–1813 and the Red Stick War of 1813–1814—wracked the trans-Appalachian frontier preceding and concurrent with the War of 1812. At the...
10. “Where All Behave Well”: Fort Bowyer and the War on the Gulf,1814–1815
Download PDF (331.7 KB)
In the predawn twilight of February 8, 1815, Lieutenant Colonel William Lawrence awoke to a troubling tableau. He stared intently into the fading darkness from the ramparts of Fort Bowyer out at the gray waters of the Gulf of Mexico. There was movement to the west and the south, and the rising sun soon revealed an alarming...
11. Archaeology, Geography, and the Creek War in Alabama
Download PDF (330.1 KB)
This chapter is a brief survey of geographical and archaeological information relating to the Creek War during the period between the Battle of Burnt Corn ( July 27, 1813) and the Treaty of Fort Jackson (August 9, 1814). My particular focus is on the Upper...
12. Digging Twice: Camps and Historical Sites Associated with the Warof 1812 and the Creek War of 1813–1814 - James W. Parker
Download PDF (307.4 KB)
Archaeological sites related to the US war effort in the Creek War during the era of the War of 1812 are scattered across Alabama as well as neighboring states. Beginning in 1996, the US National Park Service, consultants, and state agencies conducted surveys and worked to identify the most important sites of the conflicts (there are two) as part...
Afterword: The Western Muscogee (Creek) Perspective
Download PDF (98.2 KB)
As a Muscogee (Creek) citizen and member of the Wind clan from the Tulmuchusee tribal town and an adopted member of the Hillabee ceremonial ground, my goal is to present the western Creek perspective of this history that is so important to us. What I did was listen...
Appendix I: Current Preservation Status of Major Creek War / War of 1812 Sites in Alabama
Download PDF (138.6 KB)
Appendix 2: Known and Potential Archaeological Sites in Alabama
Download PDF (229.8 KB)
Download PDF (222.0 KB)
Download PDF (139.3 KB)
Download PDF (119.5 KB)
Page Count: 324
Publication Year: 2012