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The Juan Pardo Expeditions

Exploration of the Carolinas and Tennessee, 1566-1568

Written by Charles Hudson, with contributions from David G. Moore, Paul Hoffman

Publication Year: 2005

An early Spanish explorer’s account of American Indians.
This volume mines the Pardo documents to reveal a wealth of information pertaining to Pardo’s routes, his encounters and interactions with native peoples, the social, hierarchical, and political structures of the Indians, and clues to the ethnic identities of Indians known previously only through archaeology. The new afterword reveals recent archaeological evidence of Pardo’s Fort San Juan--the earliest site of sustained interaction between Europeans and Indians--demonstrating the accuracy of Hudson’s route reconstructions.

Published by: The University of Alabama Press

Title Page, Copyright Page

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pp. iii-iv


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pp. v-vi


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pp. vii-viii

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Preface to 2005 Edition

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pp. ix-x

The main body of the text of this revised edition is unaltered. A list of errata from the hardcover edition is appended. New to this edition is an afterword by David Moore, Robin Beck, and Christopher Rodning briefly summarizing research on the Berry site and its identification as the...

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Preface to First Edition

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pp. xi-xii

My first attempt to answer some of the questions that have led me to write this book was in 1963-64, when I was a graduate student at the University of North Carolina. At that time I was struggling to develop a theoretical framework I could use to make sense of the Catawba Indians of South...

Part I

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1. Early Spanish Exploration

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pp. 3-21

After Pedro Menendez de Aviles founded St. Augustine in September 1565 and quickly crushed the French Huguenots, who in the previous year had established a fort near the mouth of the St. Johns River, he took a detachment of soldiers north to found yet another town-Santa Elena, on the...

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2. Juan Pardo's Two Expeditions

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pp. 23-50

Menendez went to inspect Santa Elena in August 1566. He found that Esteban de las Alas and Juan Pardo had taken control and had managed to ease the problems caused by the mutiny, although their supply of food was inadequate. On this visit, Menendez formally designated Santa Elena the...

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3. The Indians

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pp. 51-124

Juan Pardo's second expedition opens a window through which one can glimpse the Indians of the Carolinas and Tennessee in the sixteenth century. Hernando de Soto visited many of these same Indians in 1540. But Soto was intent on the discovery of riches, and if riches could be discovered, he...

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4. The Foundations of Greater Florida

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pp. 125-168

In order to defend against colonial competItIon from other European powers in North America, Pedro Menendez de Aviles founded three forts on the lower Atlantic coast: S1. Augustine, San Mateo, and Santa Elena. St. Augustine was strategically located to protect Spanish ships passing...

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5. The Failure of Greater Florida

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pp. 169-202

Historians have generally praised Pedro Menendez de Aviles for having successfully founded a colony in the Southeast where so many had failed before him. But the truth is that Menendez's success was achieved within a larger failure-a failure of monumental proportions. In part this failure...

Part II: The Pardo Documents

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The "Long" Bandera Relation

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pp. 205-296

This document was first noted in print by Ruidiaz in volume two of his La Florida, where he cites it as a 1569 "Autos sobre la relaci6n que dio el Capitan Juan Pardo de la entrada que hizo en Tierras de la Florida," but does not give a source or a...

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The "Short" Bandera Relation

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pp. 297-304

Transcription: Florida 1566 Sta Elena Memoria de los lugares y que tierra es cada Lugar de los de las provi[nci]as de la florida I por donde El capitan Ju[an] pardo Entro a descubrir camino para nueva espana desde la pun/ta de sancta elena de las dichas...

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The Pardo Relation

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pp. 305-316

Because of damage to the right margin of folios 1 and 2 that shows in the microfilm made for my use in 1988, I have checked my transcription against Ruidiaz's transcription in La Florida, II, 465-473, on the assumption that Ruidiaz's transcription, made ca. 1893, was based on a state of the document prior to when...

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The Martinez Relation

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pp. 317-321

Este es un traslado bien y fielmente saca/do de un traslado sinple que fue sacado de un libro / y memoria de la conquista y tierra de las provincias / de la florida que el IlI[ustr]e Senor garcia Osorio g[ovemad]or y capitan / ge[ne]r[a]l de esa ysla por su mag[istad] dio a mi el escriv[an]o de yuso escripto / que fue sacado de un libro y...

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Three New Documents from the Pardo Expeditions

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pp. 323-342

The three documents that follow in transcription and translation are heretofore unpublished and unused in studies of the expeditions of Captain Juan Pardo. In order, these documents are (I) a list of the persons to whom fiber sandals (alpargatas) and shoes were given at Chiaha/Olameco, October 8, 1567, (2) a charge...

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Afterword: Pardo, Joara, and Fort San Juan Revisited

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pp. 343-349

During the mid-1980s, Charles Hudson and his colleagues from the University of Georgia published a series of articles that changed how archaeologists and historians view the routes of the Spaniards Hernando de Soto and Juan Pardo through the interior Southeast.2 Although their research revived debate among...


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pp. 351-361


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pp. 363-364

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About the Authors

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pp. 365-366

David G. Moore (Ph.D., University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill 1999) has been actively involved in the archaeology of North Carolina's mountain and western Piedmont regions for more than 25 years. He served for 18 years...

E-ISBN-13: 9780817383213
Print-ISBN-13: 9780817351908

Publication Year: 2005