Towns and Temples Along the Mississippi
Publication Year: 1990
A Dan Josselyn Memorial Publication
Specialists from archaeology, ethnohistory, physical anthropology, and cultural anthropology bring their varied points of view to this subject in an attempt to answer basic questions about the nature and extent of social change within the time period. The scholars' overriding concerns include presentation of a scientifically accurate depiction of the native cultures in the Central Mississippi Valley prior and immediately subsequent to European contact and the need to document the ensuing social and biological changes that eventually led to the widespread depopulation and cultural reorientation. Their findings lead to three basic hypotheses that will focus the scholarly research for decades to come.
George J. Armelagos, Ian W. Brown, Chester B. DePratter, George F. Fielder, Jr., James B. Griffin, M. Cassandra Hill, Michael P. Hoffman, Charles Hudson, R. Barry Lewis, Dan F. Morse, Phyllis A. Morse, Mary Lucas Powell, Cynthia R. Price, James F. Price, Gerald P. Smith, Marvin T. Smith, and Stephen Williams
Published by: The University of Alabama Press
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This volume presents an overview of the most advanced Native American cultures north of Mexico at the time of initial European contact. The story of their way of life is now unfolding as new information accumulates from the efforts of long-term archaeological research programs. These Mississippian people, organized into complex chiefdoms, lived in the Central Mississippi Valley from approximately A.D. ...
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Towns and Temples Along the Mississippi is a collection of scholarly essays that outline the Late Prehistoric (A.D. 1350-1541), Protohistoric (1541-1700), and Early Historic (1700-1800) periods in the Central Mississippi Valley The volume focuses upon the life-style of the native inhabitants, the Mississippian Indians, at a critical juncture in their history, that period during which European political, economic, and biological...
1. Comments on the Late Prehistoric Societies in the Southeast
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This paper is a prelude to the more detailed and authoritative presentations in this volume. The information or interpretations in this paper are based on a number of publications as well as on my own participation in archaeological research in the area. This contribution is, of course, a compression of prehistoric and ethnohistoric research and as such is bound to be unsatisfactory in quite a number of ways to various...
2. An Evaluation of the Biocultural Consequences of the Mississippian Transformation
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Paleopathology is a powerful tool for understanding the adaptation of prehistoric populations. The analysis of health and disease in archaeological populations provides a measure of the group's ability to adjust and to respond to changes in the environment. The pattern of disease found in a group is not a matter of chance. As Calvin Wells (1964:17) so aptly states: ...
3. The Late Prehistory of the Ohio—Mississippi Rivers Confluence Region, Kentucky and Missouri
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The Ohio-Mississippi rivers confluence region (Figure 3-1) stretches from the city of Cairo, Illinois, down the Mississippi River to the Kentucky-Tennessee state line. It takes in the Cane Hills and Big Bottoms (Davis 1923) on the Kentucky side of the river and the Cairo Lowland in Missouri. The Kentucky portion is predominately upland, and the floodplain is narrow except at its northern and southern ends where river...
4. Protohistoric/Early Historic Manifestations in Southeastern Missouri
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Most of the southeastern Missouri lowlands appear to have been abandoned during the Late Prehistoric period, ca. A.D. 1350-1450. Evidence of Protohistoric and Early Historic occupation, ca. A.D. 1550-1650, has been found only at a tightly clustered complex of relatively small sites situated along Pemiscot Bayou in the extreme southeastern part of the Missouri Bootheel. This pattern is in marked contrast to site...
5. The Nodena Phase
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The extinct societies of northeastern Arkansas are classified by archaeologists into broad cultural periods. The cultural period for the Nodena site is the Mississippian period of ca. A.D. 800-1650
6. Health and Disease at Nodena: A Late Mississippian Community in Northeastern Arkansas
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According to Rodrigo Ranjel, one of the chroniclers of the de Soto expedition, the Spanish observed in the great chiefdoms of Casqui and Pacaha along the banks of the Mississippi River in its Central Valley "the best villages seen up to that time, better stockaded and fortified, and the people ... of finer quality, excepting those of Cofitachequi" (Bourne 1904:2:140). The archaeological locality of Nodena, identified by Morse and...
7. The Parkin Site and the Parkin Phase
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The Parkin site is located on the east bank of the St. Francis River in Cross County, Arkansas (Morse 1981: 1), immediately below the confluence of the Tyronza River. The site measures 17 acres (6.9 ha) and is bordered by a wide ditch on the northern, eastern, and southern edges. A flat-topped temple mound 6.5 m high is on the central western edge, overlooking the St. Francis River. The site was built up with...
8. The Walls Phase and Its Neighbors
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Wthin the Mississippi Valley at least four major cultural and geographic subdivisions of the Mississippian tradition can be distinguished. The major point of distinction to date is ceramic complexes that have required different ceramic typologies in each region for nearly all types except the plainware. Contrasts in a wide range of other aspects of culture are also coming into view as work continues but are not yet as obvious...
9. The Vacant Quarter and Other Late Events in the Lower Valley
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In returning now to Memphis, the City on the Bluffs, I realize that my more than 30-year perspective on its growth and change should help me in my attempt to understand events in the prehistoric past from this same vantage point. Front Street, where in the early 1950s cotton still often lay like early snow in the gutters; Crump Boulevard, which was the expressway then; and a very decaying Beale Street...
10. The Hernando de Soto Expedition: From Mabila to the Mississippi River
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Hernando de Sota's expedition into the southeastern United States was dealt a serious blow in the battle with Tascaluza and his allies at Mabila. De Soto lost men and horses, as well as clothing, food, and equipment. About 150 of his soldiers were wounded, many with multiple wounds (Fidalgo of Elvas 1866:89-90; RanjeI1922: 127). He also lost the pearls that he had taken from the temple...
11. The Terminal Mississippian Period in the Arkansas River Valley and Quapaw Ethnogenesis
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The first scientific study of the Quapaw Indians was accomplished in 1827 when George Izard reported certain facts about them to the American Philosophical Society (Bizzell 1982:72} He was given an account of the Quapaw migration tradition by Paheka, the grandfather of the principal chief. I imagine that Paheka's first three words to Territorial Governor Izard in...
12. Historic Indians of the Lower Mississippi Valley: An Archaeologist's View
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In the late fall of 1910, under the agency of a steampowered craft called the Gopher, the archaeologist Clarence B. Moore ascended the Mississippi River to a landing in West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana. He spent little time in the area, as there were no impressive mounds or rich cemetries to hold his attention, but he did stay long enough to view a collection and to do some digging at the nearby Trudeau plantation. Having...
13. Comprehensive Planning for the Protection and Preservation of Mississippian Sites in Tennessee
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Cultural resource management is the term currently used to describe a wide range of activities, decision-making processes, and legal obligations. However, it is not a new concept, inasmuch as the participation of local, state, and federal governments in archaeological research, salvage operations, and site acquisition date back to the 1930s and earlier. The archaeological foundations of Arkansas, Mississippi, Tennessee, ...
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Publication Year: 1990