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The Paleoindian and Early Archaic Southeast

Edited by David G. Anderson and Kenneth E. Sassaman, with contributions from Mic

Publication Year: 1996

The southeastern United States has one of the richest records of early human settlement of any area of North America. This book provides the first state-by-state summary of Paleoindian and Early Archaic research from the region, together with an appraisal of models developed to interpret the data. It summarizes what we know of the peoples who lived in the Southeast more than 8,000 years ago—when giant ice sheets covered the northern part of the continent, and such mammals as elephants, saber-toothed tigers, and ground sloths roamed the landscape. Extensively illustrated, this benchmark collection of essays on the state of Paleoindian and Early Archaic research in the Southeast will guide future studies on the subject of the region's first inhabitants for years to come.

Divided in three parts, the volume includes:

Part I: Modeling Paleoindian and Early Archaic Lifeways in the Southeast

Environmental and Chronological Considerations, David G. Anderson, Lisa D. O'Steen, and Kenneth E. Sassaman
Modeling Paleoindian and Early Archaic Settlement in the Southeast: A Historical Perspective, David G. Anderson and Kenneth E. Sassaman

Models of Paleoindian and Early Archaic Settlement in the Lower Southeast, David G. Anderson
Early Archaic Settlement in the South Carolina Coastal Plain, Kenneth E. Sassaman
Raw Material Availability and Early Archaic Settlement in the Southeast, I. Randolph Daniel Jr.
Paleoindian and Early Archaic Settlement along the Oconee Drainage, Lisa D. O'Steen
Haw River Revisited: Implications for Modeling Terminal Late Glacial and Early Holocene Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the Southeast, John S. Cable
Early Archiac Settlement and Technology: Lessons from Tellico, Larry R. Kimball
Paleoindians Near the Edge: A Virginia Perspective, Michael F. Johnson

Part II: The Regional Record

The Need for a Regional Perspective, Kenneth E. Sassaman and David G. Anderson
Paleoindian and Early Archaic Research in the South Carolina Area, David G. Anderson and Kenneth E. Sassaman
The Taylor Site: An Early Occupation in Central South Carolina, James L. Michie
Paleoindian and Early Archaic Research in Tennessee, John B. Boster and Mark R. Norton
A Synopsis of Paleoindian and Early Archaic Research in Alabama, Eugene M. Futato
Statified Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Deposits at Dust Cave, Northwestern Alabama, Boyce N. Driskell
Bone and Ivory Tools from Submerged Paleoindian Sites in Florida, James S. Dunbar and S. David Webb
Paleoindian and Early Archaic Data from Mississippi, Samuel O. McGahey
Early and Middle Paleoindian Sites in the Northeastern Arkansas Region, J. Christopher Gillam

Part III: Commentary

A Framework for the Paleoindian/Early Archaic Transition, Joel Gunn
Modeling Communities and Other Thankless Tasks, Dena F. Dincauze
An Arkansas View, Dan F. Morse
Comments, Henry T. Wright

Published by: The University of Alabama Press

Contents

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pp. vii-viii

Figures and Tables

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pp. ix-xiii

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Preface

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pp. xv-xvi

The year 1992 marked the 500th anniversary of the initiation of European colonization and settlement of the New World, and to many people, the year 1492 remains the date of the "discovery" of the Americas. In this volume, we celebrate the true discovery process, a record of exploration...

Part I: Modeling Paleoindian and Early Archaic Lifeways in the Southeast

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pp. 1-212

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1. Environmental and Chronological Considerations

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pp. 3-15

The initial human occupation of the Southeast in all probability occurred between 15,000 and 11,000 years before the present (B.P.), during the Late Glacial era. At that time, sea levels were 70 or more meters lower than at the present, and the Atlantic and Gulf shorelines were considerably seaward of their present...

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2. Modeling Paleoindian and Early Archaic Settlement in the Southeast: A Historical Perspective

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pp. 16-28

The southeastern Paleoindian and Early Archaic record is rich and varied, and Paleoindian and Early Archaic settlement systems differed markedly over the region. Coupled with this, pronounced changes in both culture and environment occurred over the 3,500 or more years these...

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3. Models of Paleoindian and Early Archaic Settlement in the Lower Southeast

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pp. 29-57

Resolving the lifeways of the first Americans entails the recovery and interpretation of information about a range of phenomena, including settlement and mobility strategies, subsistence pursuits, information exchange and mating networks, technological organization, burial customs, and...

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4. Early Archaic Settlement in the South Carolina Coastal Plain

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pp. 58-83

The Atlantic Coastal Plain comprises a series of marine terraces that formed over millions of years as the coastline shifted with changes in sea level. Its present coastal morphology consists of a series of alternating strands, bays, sea islands, and estuaries. To the interior, numerous rivers...

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5. Raw Material Availability and Early Archaic Settlement in the Southeast

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pp. 84-91

Since the 1970s, increased attention has been devoted to investigating Early Archaic settlement in the Southeast, the band-macroband model being the most comprehensive formulation to date (Anderson and Hanson 1988). In this model, Early Archaic settlement along the South Atlantic...

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6. Paleoindian and Early Archaic Settlement along the Oconee Drainage

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pp. 92-106

The.earliest prehistoric populations along the Oconee River in the Georgia Piedmont were adapted to a Late Glacial environment quite different from that of today, an adaptation that is reflected primarily in a few remaining stone tools. During the latter part of the Paleoindian period...

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7. Haw River Revisited: Implications for Modeling Terminal Late Glacial and Early Holocene Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the Southeast

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pp. 107-148

The 1979 excavations at the Haw River Site (31CH29) in North Carolina recovered one of the more important samples of stratified Late Paleoindian and Archaic living floors in the southeastern United States (Claggett and Cable 1982). Unfortunately, the results of the excavation have been...

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8. Early Archaic Settlement and Technology: Lessons from Tellico

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pp. 149-186

Between 1973 and 1977, Jefferson Chapman (1975, 1977, 1978, 1979) undertook investigations in the lower Little Tennessee River valley, now inundated by Tellico Lake. The goals of these investigations were the establishment of an Early Archaic cultural chronology for eastern...

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9. Paleoindians Near the Edge: A Virginia Perspective

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pp. 187-212

The following discussion synthesizes ideas presented in two papers: "An Analogy between Eastern Paleoindian and Historic Caribou Hunters: A Broad Perspective from Virginia" (M. Johnson 1992) and "The Lithic Technology and Material Culture of the First Virginians: An Eastern Clovis...

Part II: The Regional Record

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pp. 213-412

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10. The Need for a Regional Perspective

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pp. 215-221

The second part of this volume contains chapters describing the Paleoindian and Early Archaic archaeological record across the lower Southeast. Awareness of this record is essential if we are to develop regional- scale models of Paleoindian and Early Archaic prehistory. While...

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11. Paleoindian and Early Archaic Research in the South Carolina Area

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pp. 222-237

Widespread awareness of the great antiquity of human settlement in the New World did not come about until the 1920s, when fluted projectile points were found embedded in the ribs of a Pleistocene bison near Folsom, New Mexico. The Folsom discovery provided unequivocal evidence that...

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12. The Taylor Site: An Early Occupation in Central South Carolina

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pp. 238-269

Initial plans to excavate the Taylor site, 38LX1, were formulated in the latter part of the 1960s before professional archaeology had established a permanent position in South Carolina. It was a time when little was known about the Early Archaic in the Southeast and when Dalton research was...

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13. Paleoindian and Early Archaic Research in Georgia

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pp. 270-287

The examination of the Paleoindian and Early Archaic periods as a serious research topic has been addressed only within the past few years by the Georgia archaeological community. Because excavation data in Georgia are so limited, our primary sources of insight rely upon comparison...

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14. Recent Paleoindian Research in Tennessee

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pp. 288-297

In its first attempt to use a systematic approach for data recovery for the entire state, since 1988 the Tennessee Division of Archaeology has been conducting a state-wide Paleoindian projectile point and site survey. Previously, only the survey of Paleoindian fluted points in Smith County...

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15. A Synopsis of Paleoindian and Early Archaic Research in Alabama

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pp. 298-314

The history of archaeology of the Paleoindian and Early Archaic occupations of Alabama covers just about forty years. The first published discussion of Paleoindian materials from Alabama familiar to this author is Harold Klein's (1953) presentation of materials from a site in Franklin...

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16. Stratified Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Deposits at Dust Cave, Northwestern Alabama

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pp. 315-330

Dust Cave (1LU496) is one of many caves draining the undulating, karstic uplands to the north of the Tennessee River near present-day Florence, Alabama. The cave came to the attention of professional archaeologists in 1988 as a result of an unpublished report from Dr. Richard Cobb, a...

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17. Bone and Ivory Tools from Submerged Paleoindian Sites in Florida

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pp. 331-353

Many rivers and springs in peninsular Florida are richly laden with bones and teeth of Late Pleistocene vertebrates (S. D. Webb 1974, 1976). Some of the same underwater settings also yield outstanding collections of Paleoindian artifacts, especially in karst regions where chert outcrops...

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18. Paleoindian and Early Archaic Data from Mississippi

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pp. 354-384

Over the past few years, a serious effort has been made to draw together all available early lithic data from Mississippi in order to form the basis for "historical contexts" for the state preservation plan. The contexts are defined by geographical and chronological dimensions. The...

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19. A Stone's Throw from Kimmswick: Clovis Period Research in Kentucky

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pp. 385-403

Clovis peoples entered the region that would become Kentucky during a period of regional cooling and ice margin fluctuations that characterized the end of the Pleistocene (Wright 1991:124). The environmental settings of post-Clovis Paleoindian occupations during the interval circa...

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20. Early and Middle Paleoindian Sites in the Northeastern Arkansas Region

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pp. 404-412

The Mississippi alluvial valley of northeastern Arkansas has for nearly 30 years been recognized for its Paleoindian materials. Particular attention has been paid to the Late Paleoindian Dalton tradition...

Part III: Commentary

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21. A Framework for the Paleoindian/Early Archaic Transition

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pp. 415-420

Several chapters and remarks in this volume deal with the question of the Paleoindian/Early Archaic transition. I have been very interested in this question since Goodyear's paper on the dating of Dalton appeared in 1982, and since then I have noticed that much of the information that...

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22. Modeling Communities and Other Thankless Tasks

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pp. 421-424

The conference on which this volume is based was an intense experience; it was a privilege to be among the participants being battered with new data, new ideas, elaborately argued explanatory models, and, in some cases, startling new information that rebutted established thinking. The...

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23. An Arkansas View

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pp. 425-429

The papers in this volume are exciting, and the rapid pace of research in the region is continuing. Asymposium on the Pleistocene/Holocene transition was conducted at the 1991 Southeastern Archaeological Conference, and papers on that subject from a worldwide perspective were given...

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24. Comments

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pp. 430-433

It's a privilege to comment on these pages, which have brought together much new and interesting information. I want to thank all the participants, and particularly the organizers, Dave Anderson and Ken Sassaman, for making this possible. I will limit myself to some comments that I hope...

References

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pp. 435-512

Contributors

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pp. 513-517

Index

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pp. 518-526


E-ISBN-13: 9780817382995
Print-ISBN-13: 9780817308353

Publication Year: 1996

Research Areas

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Subject Headings

  • Paleo-Indians -- Southern States.
  • Southern States -- Antiquities.
  • Indians of North America -- Southern States -- Antiquities.
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