Between Feminism and Islam
Human Rights and Sharia Law in Morocco
Publication Year: 2011
There are two major women’s movements in Morocco: the Islamists who hold shari’a as the platform for building a culture of women’s rights, and the feminists who use the United Nations’ framework to amend shari’a law. Between Feminism and Islam shows how the interactions of these movements over the past two decades have transformed the debates, the organization, and the strategies of each other.
In Between Feminism and Islam, Zakia Salime looks at three key movement moments: the 1992 feminist One Million Signature Campaign, the 2000 Islamist mass rally opposing the reform of family law, and the 2003 Casablanca attacks by a group of Islamist radicals. At the core of these moments are disputes over legitimacy, national identity, gender representations, and political negotiations for shaping state gender policies. Located at the intersection of feminism and Islam, these conflicts have led to the Islamization of feminists on the one hand and the feminization of Islamists on the other.
Documenting the synergistic relationship between these movements, Salime reveals how the boundaries of feminism and Islamism have been radically reconfigured. She offers a new conceptual framework for studying social movements, one that allows us to understand how Islamic feminism is influencing global debates on human rights.
Published by: University of Minnesota Press
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This book owes a great deal to the support and commitment of manywomen. I am grateful to Nadia Yassin, Mona Khalifi, Leila Rhiwi, KhadijaMufid, Bouchra Abdou, Ghizlane el Bahraoui, Naima Benyaich, Oufae Ben-abdelkader, Najia Zirari, Najat Razi, Rabea Naciri, Rachida Tahiri, HalimaBanaoui, Soumaya Benkhaldoun, Saadia Wadah, Khadija Rougani, Fatema...
Introduction. Struggles over Political Power: Entangled Feminist and Islamist Movements
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...“The feminist movement is the locomotive; if it breaks down, it will take withit all democratic forces in this country.” With these words, Samira explainedwhy she had traveled all the way north from the southern city of Marrakechto join the feminist rally in Rabat in March 2000. The trains were packed,she added. The socialist mayor of Fez, another major city, oﬀered six buses...
1. Gender and the Nation State: Family Law, Scholars, Activists, and Dissidents
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On August 20, 1992, the Moroccan public was expecting to hear King Has-san’s annual address to the nation. The women involved in signing the OneMillion Signature Campaign were particularly concerned with that year’saddress. They knew that the king would not keep silent after their mass mobi-lization, much less after the death penalty statement suggested in the Islam ist...
2. Feminization of the Islamist Movements: The One Million Signature Campaign
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In 1992 the feminist group UAF launched the One Million Signature Campaign. As its name indicates, this campaign aimed to collect one millionsignatures against the mudawwana. The petition contested this code’s con-secration of gender inequalities and proposed an egalitarian codification basedon equal rights and shared responsibilities of husbands and wives within the...
3. Reversing the Feminist Gains: The Islamist Mass Rally of 2000
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The Islamist rally of March 2000 truly marked Islamist women’s entry intothe formal political field. I consider this rally a movement moment becauseit captures simultaneously the tensions related to political alternance and thenew framework in which the feminist movement had to operate. In this chap-ter, I will show how this movement has been transformed in contact with...
4. Feminism and Islamism Redefined: In Light of the 2003 Terror Attack on Casablanca
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In May 2003, five simultaneous explosions shook the city of Casablanca,killing forty-five people, including the twelve men, all Moroccans, involvedin the attacks. The targets were a Spanish cultural center hosting a restau-rant, a Jewish community center, a Jewish cemetery, the Belgian consulate,and the Farah Hotel. The young men involved in the attack were identified...
5. Subversive Veiling: Beyond the Binary of the Secular and the Religious
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The terms “feminism” and “Islamism” have genealogies rooted in colonial rep-resentations about Islam and postcolonial identifications with modernity.Gender lies at the center of these representations. The question of women’soppression in Islam was crucial to legitimizing not only the colonial enter-prise (Ahmed 1992; Haddad and Smith 1996; Zayzafoon 2005), but also...
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Glossary, Abbreviations, and Organizations
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Page Count: 248
Publication Year: 2011
Series Title: Social Movements, Protest and Contention