Buildings for Workers in Michigan’s Copper Country
Publication Year: 2010
Published by: University of Minnesota Press
Download PDF (86.9 KB)
Title Page, Copyright
Download PDF (65.6 KB)
Download PDF (63.2 KB)
Download PDF (49.4 KB)
My first acknowledgment goes to my father, George Stewart Hoagland, and it involves baseball. One of my favorite childhood memories is of attending games with him. We—father, mother, my brother, and I—would board a train in Wilmington, Delaware, and get off at the North Philadelphia station. Then we would walk...
Introduction: Negotiating Paternalism in the Copper Country
Download PDF (467.1 KB)
In the Copper Country of Michigan, the combination of a remote location and a highly profitable industry fostered the development of a relationship between management and labor that extended beyond the workplace. The location was the Keweenaw Peninsula, which projects seventy-five miles into Lake Superior from...
1. Saltboxes and T-Plans: Creating and Inhabiting the Company House
Download PDF (3.5 MB)
Company houses, built by companies to rent to employees, were a paternalistic extension of the workplace relationship, a visible incursion into the private lives of workers who were tied to the company not only by a paycheck but also by a home, thus making for a complex association. Workers clearly believed it to be...
2. The Spaces of a Strike: Company Buildings and Landscapes in a Time of Conflict
Download PDF (2.3 MB)
This event was the first galvanizing incident of what would be a long strike. The strike had begun on July 23, the result of several years of organizing by the Western Federation of Miners. The companies played it tough, refusing to meet with the union or listen to its demands. At issue were pay, hours, introduction of the one-man drill,...
3. “Home for the Working Man”: Strategies for Homeownership
Download PDF (2.6 MB)
Homeownership—the very opposite of company housing—was perceived as an American ideal. As historian Olivier Zunz has shown, it was more often an immigrant ideal, with homeownership rates for that group outpacing native-born Americans during this period. Reformers promoted homeownership as a way to...
4. Acquiring Conveniences: Water, Heat, and Light
Download PDF (1.9 MB)
Conveniences such as running water, indoor toilets, central heat, and electric lights make an enormous difference in how people live in a house. People use rooms differently, depending on the light and heat sources. The convenience of having water, toilets, and heating fuel indoors, rather than out in the yard, affected circulation...
5. Churches, Schools, Bathhouses: Building Community on Company Land
Download PDF (3.7 MB)
Company management was involved, at least to some extent, in all of these community facilities. Companies had to do more than build housing if they were to attract and retain workers; they also had to provide or encourage all of the institutions that made life in the Copper Country possible and enjoyable. The...
6. Preservation and Loss: Remembering through Buildings
Download PDF (1.7 MB)
Joe and Elaine Putrich’s “memory” of the Copper Country was not literal, as neither had lived here. Their memory consisted of family photographs and stories told by Joe’s grandparents, such as his father, as a baby in Antonia’s arms, receiving powder burns on his face during the shootings. The house at which this occurred...
Download PDF (201.4 KB)
Download PDF (100.8 KB)
Download PDF (543.8 KB)
About the Author
Download PDF (37.7 KB)
Page Count: 328
Publication Year: 2010