From Enron to Evo
Pipeline Politics, Global Environmentalism, and Indigenous Rights in Bolivia
Publication Year: 2013
Drawing upon extensive interviews and document analysis, Hindery argues that many of the structural conditions created by neoliberal policies—including partial privatization of the oil and gas sector—still persist under Morales. Tactics employed by both Morales and his neoliberal predecessors utilize the rhetoric of environmental protection and Indigenous rights to justify oil, gas, mining, and road development in Indigenous territories and sensitive ecoregions.
Indigenous peoples, while mindful of gains made during Morales’s tenure, are increasingly dissatisfied with the administration’s development model, particularly when it infringes upon their right to self-determination. From Enron to Evo demonstrates their dynamic and pragmatic strategies to cope with development and adversity, while also advancing their own aims.
Offering a critique of both free-market piracy and the dilemmas of resource nationalism, this is a groundbreaking book for scholars, policy-makers, and advocates concerned with Indigenous politics, social movements, environmental justice, and resistance in an era of expanding resource development.
Published by: University of Arizona Press
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Foreword, by Susanna Hecht
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Che Guevara passed his last days in Vallegrande in the Andean foothills just above the Bolivian Amazon, and as he waited for his inevitable end, he might well have gazed toward the east, over a landscape that was just turning from its latifundist past and beginning its slow gyre toward its modern agroindustrial and hydrocarbon booms and its emergent native ...
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This book was made possible by generous support from various individuals, institutions, and communities. I would fi rst like to express my deepest grati-tude to the Chiquitano and Ayoreo people of Bolivia, who took their precious time to collaborate and shared their important experiences with me. I am sincerely grateful to leaders of various local, regional, and national Indigenous ...
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1. Political Ecology, Pipelines, and the Conduits of Resistance
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Disgruntled over the Bolivian government’s renewed support for a contro-versial road through the Isiboro- Sécure Indigenous Territory and National Park (Territorio Indígena y Parque Nacional Isiboro- Sécure, TIPNIS), in January 2012 a block of Indigenous legislators from President Evo Morales’s po liti cal party, Movement Toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialismo, ...
2. The Neoliberal Turn and the Rise of Resistance
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The neoliberal economic “reforms” adopted in the early 1980s and there-after defi ned a new era in which multilateral aid and po liti cal pressure (mostly from the United States) encouraged Bolivian president Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada to partially privatize the national oil company, rewrite laws and regulations in favor of transnationals, create corporate- friendly ...
3. Green-stamping a Pipeline
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Of Enron Corp.’s many po liti cal maneuvers in Washington before its fall into bankruptcy, winning the promise of federal fi nancing for a 390- mile pipeline from Bolivia to Brazil through the Chiquitano Dry Tropical For-Thus read the headline of a front page story in the Washington Post that momentarily catapulted the story of Enron and Shell’s Cuiabá pipeline ...
4. Struggling for Transparency and Fairness
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The neoliberal economic reforms implemented in Bolivia since 1985—particularly structural adjustment, capitalization of the state oil company, the hydrocarbons law, and the heart law— brought transnational oil corpo-rations like Enron and Shell into Bolivia, sparking intense mobilization by affected Indigenous peoples. As the reforms deepened, Indigenous ...
5. Struggling for Consultation, Compensation, and Territory
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To obtain an environmental license from the Bolivian government and a $200 million loan from the US government’s Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), Enron and Shell were obligated to carry out consul-tations and fund a community compensation program, known as the Indig-enous Development Plan, for Chiquitano and Ayoreo Indigenous peoples ...
6. Struggling for Environmental Justice
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The case of the Cuiabá pipeline is a classic story of environmental injustice, an outgrowth of a neo co lo nial form of development based on neoliberal ideology (Wolford 2008). Facilitated by the neoliberal economic policies they had championed themselves, Enron, Shell, and locally allied elites accrued the lion’s share of the pipeline’s profi ts. Little was left for the Boliv-...
7. From Neoliberalism to Nationalism: Resource Extraction in the Age of Evo
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In December 2005, Evo Morales Ayma became Bolivia’s fi rst self- declared Indigenous president. Winning an unpre ce dented 54% of the pop u lar vote in a country where 66% of the population self- identifi es as Indigenous,1 his election dealt a “historic blow against informal apartheid race relations” (Webber 2011:231). Indigenous issues were propelled front and center in ...
8. Clashing Cosmologies and Constitutional Contradictions
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The preamble to the 2009 Bolivian Constitution reads as follows:In immemorial times mountains arose, rivers were displaced, lakes were formed. Our Amazonia, our Chaco, our highlands and our plains and valleys were covered by greenness and fl owers. We populated this sacred Mother Earth with different faces, and since then we understood the ...
9. Cuiabá under Morales
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Although mobilization related to the Cuiabá pipeline subsequent to the election of Evo Morales was marked by sporadic moments of direct action, overall there was a general decline in such activities during the fi rst years of his presidency. Intermittent acts of rebellion emerged primarily in de-fense of livelihood, most notably in 2006 when the Chiquitanos took over ...
10. Evo’s Double Game on the Environment?
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In this chapter I argue that while the Evo Morales administration has made some advances with respect to the environment, such as the modest pursuit of renewable energy initiatives, its green discourse has been coupled with practices on the ground that degrade the environment and threaten Indigenous peoples’ livelihood, such as support for ge ne tically modifi ed ...
11. Conclusion: Reconsidering Development, Indigenous Rights, and the Environment
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The manifesto of the Fourth Global Minga in Defense of Mother Earth,1 Five hundred nineteen years ago, the Eu ro pe an invasion of our conti-nent, Abya Yala (today known as America), abruptly interrupted the life of our civilizations, which knew how to coexist in dialogue and har-mony with the Mother Earth. The plunder, depredation, and physical ...
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About the Author
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Derrick Hindery is an Assistant Professor in the departments of Interna-tional Studies and Geography at the University of Oregon. He holds a BA, MA, and PhD in Geography from the University of California, Los Angeles. His research focuses on Indigenous po liti cal mobilization in response to neoliberal and statist models of extractive development in Latin America, ...
Page Count: 280
Illustrations: 10 photos, 1 map
Publication Year: 2013
Series Title: First Peoples: New Directions in Indigen