The Affinity of the Eye
Writing Nikkei in Peru
Publication Year: 2013
In The Affinity of the Eye: Writing Nikkei in Peru, Ignacio López-Calvo rises above the political emergence of the Fujimori phenomenon and uses politics and literature to provide one of the first comprehensive looks at how the Japanese assimilated and inserted themselves into Peruvian culture. Through contemporary writers’ testimonies, essays, fiction, and poetry, López-Calvo constructs an account of the cultural formation of Japanese migrant communities. With deftly sensitive interviews and comments, he portrays the difficulties of being a Japanese Peruvian. Despite a few notable examples, Asian Peruvians have been excluded from a sense of belonging or national identity in Peru, which provides López-Calvo with the opportunity to record what the community says about their own cultural production. In so doing, López-Calvo challenges fixed notions of Japanese Peruvian identity.
The Affinity of the Eye scrutinizes authors such as José Watanabe, Fernando Iwasaki, Augusto Higa, Doris Moromisato, and Carlos Yushimito, discussing their literature and their connections to the past, present, and future. Whether these authors push against or accept what it means to be Japanese Peruvians, they enrich the images and feelings of that experience. Through a close reading of literary and cultural productions, López-Calvo’s analysis challenges and reframes the parameters of being Nikkei in Peru.
Covering both Japanese issues in Peru and Peruvian issues in Japan, the book is more than a compendium of stories, characters, and titles. It proves the fluid, enriching, and ongoing relationship that exists between Peru and Japan.
Published by: University of Arizona Press
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Title Page, Copyright
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List of Illustrations
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Foreword: Peruvian Japonisms - Fernando Iwasaki
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The Affi nity of the Eye: Writing Nikkei in Peru by Ignacio López-Calvo is a unique and amazing book. I consider it unique because its fi eld of study covers both Japanese issues in Peru and Peruvian issues in Japan, and I fi nd it amazing because he has found enough material to publish a substantial monograph with sociological, his-...
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Ricardo Bedoya, Lilian Dávila, César Ferreira, Charlotte Graig, Calvo, Stephanie Moore, Doris Moromisato, Rubén Quiroz Ávila, Rebecca Tsurumi, a nd Carlos Yushimito for all their suggestions and help with the research for this book. I would also like to thank José I. Suárez not only for their valuable suggestions but also for ...
A Note on Translation
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In cases where the text’s English version does not appear in the works cited and no page numbers are included after the quotation, the translation is mine. Otherwise, the English version is quoted larly when implying a long vowel) changes from author to author and from text to text, as authors often try to transcribe phonetically ...
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...general elections. Their leaders declared that they did not have “affi nity of the eye,” unaware that ideological and political —José Watanabe, “Laredo: Donde los japoneses se hallaban”of a migrant community: the population of Japanese descent within Peru. More specifi cally, it focuses on the strategies used by Japanese ...
Part I. Nikkei Testimonials
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1. Seiichi Higashide’s Adiós to Tears: Flexible Citizenship, American War Propaganda, and the Birth of Anti-Japanese Hysteria in Peru
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...ible transnationalism of “nomadic” or multiply displaced subjects allows them to elude repressive state structures and state disci-plining. In this context, referring to the cultural logics of Chinese transnationality, Aihwa Ong comments that “‘fl exible citizenship’ refers to the cultural logics of capital accumulation, travel, and dis-...
2. Okinawa, el reino de la cortesía and Okinawa: Un sigloen el Perú: Dialogues with Nationalism and Renegotiations of (Sub)Ethnicity
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...in two books that blend historical study and testimonials: Ricardo Munehide Ganaja Kamisato’s Okinawa, el reino de la cortesía, y testi-ness, and the Testimonial of an Okinawan Peruvian, 2008) and Doris conceived as part of a strategy of self-affi rmation of subethnic (since many Okinawans also identify with Japanese ethnicity) Uchinanchu ...
Part II. Nikkei Narratives
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3. Nippo-Peruvian Self-Identification in Augusto Higa’s La iluminación de Katzuo Nakamatsu and Japón noda dos oportunidades
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...a Peruvian Nikkei author born in Lima in 1946. After graduating from the University of San Marcos with a bachelor’s degree in Peru-vian and Latin American literature, he worked as editor of the Insti-tuto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo (National Institute of Research and Development; INIDE). Higa currently teaches litera-...
4. Lima + Seville = Okinawa: The Japanese as Caricature in Fernando Iwasaki’s España, aparta de mí estos premios
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...fernando iwasaki (1961–),1 with José Watanabe, is one of the most international Peruvian authors of Japanese origin. Although his opus does not generally treat the Japanese or their identity, four of his texts refl ect this ethnicity: the historical study Extremo Oriente y el Perú en el siglo XVI (The Far East and Peru in the Sixteenth ...
5. Carlos Yushimito’s Post-nationalist and Post-identitarian Short Stories
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...literary star in Peru, even before the prestigious Granta magazine language writers under thirty-fi ve.1 As he explains in an interview with Alfredo Kato in the Peruvian journal Perú Shimpo, his grand-father’s surname, Yoshimitsu, was changed by a Peruvian customs offi cial when he thought he heard his grandfather say “Yushimito.” ...
Part III. Nikkei Poetry
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6. Japanese Culture and the Politics of Cultural Belonging in José Watanabe’s Poetry
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...in an essay titled “Aspectos de la cultura del Japón” (Aspects of Japan’s Culture), Peruvian writer Javier Sologuren posits that “the poetic feeling, nourished by a profound love for nature and its revelations, is a living constant underlying all forms where the Japanese people’s literary and artistic expressions are articulated.”1 ...
7. Gender Roles, Sexuality, and Uchinanchu Cultural Identity in Doris Moromisato’s Poetry
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...his public discourse, the Nisei Doris Moromisato Miasato’s case (1962–) is different: not denying her Japanese cultural heritage, she celebrates her Okinawan identity, particularly after 1990.1 Her ecological and feminist concerns to lesbian desire and ethnopolitical at large. The youngest of eleven children of two peasants from Oki-...
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...duction in relation to Nippo-Peruvian identity and history? As seen in previous chapters, Nikkei writing may be interpreted as a call for acceptance into the imaginary of the Peruvian nation, which chal-lenges the traditional criollo-indigenous duality (as Sino-Peruvian, well). While some discursive practices establish cultural differ-...
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Chronological List of Analyzed Works
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About the Author
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Ignacio López-Calvo is a professor of Latin American literature at the University of California, Merced. He is the author of fi ve books on Latin American and US Latino literature and culture: Written in Exile. Chilean Fiction Since 1973 (Routledge, 2001); Religión y militarismo en la obra de Marcos Aguinis, 1963–2000 (Mellen, 2002); ...
Page Count: 283
Illustrations: 15 photos
Publication Year: 2013