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Native and Spanish New Worlds

Sixteenth-Century Entradas in the American Southwest and Southeast

Edited by Clay Mathers, Jeffrey M. Mitchem, and Charles M. Haecker

Publication Year: 2013

Spanish-led entradas—expeditions bent on the exploration and control of new territories—took place throughout the sixteenth century in what is now the southern United States. Although their impact was profound, both locally and globally, detailed analyses of these encounters are notably scarce. Focusing on several major themes—social, economic, political, military, environmental, and demographic—the contributions gathered here explore not only the cultures and peoples involved in these unique engagements but also the wider connections and disparities between these borderlands and the colonial world in general during the first century of Native–European contact in North America. Bringing together research from both the southwestern and southeastern United States, this book offers a comparative synthesis of Native–European contacts and their consequences in both regions. The chapters also engage at different scales of analysis, from locally based research to macro-level evaluations, using documentary, paleoclimatic, and regional archaeological data.
No other volume assembles such a wide variety of archaeological, ethnohistorical, environmental, and biological information to elucidate the experience of Natives and Europeans in the early colonial world of Northern New Spain, and the global implications of entradas during this formative period in borderlands history.

Spanish-led entradas—expeditions bent on the exploration and control of new territories—took place throughout the sixteenth century in what is now the southern United States. Although their impact was profound, both locally and globally, detailed analyses of these encounters are notably scarce. Focusing on several major themes—social, economic, political, military, environmental, and demographic—the contributions gathered here explore not only the cultures and peoples involved in these unique engagements but also the wider connections and disparities between these borderlands and the colonial world in general during the first century of Native–European contact in North America. Bringing together research from both the southwestern and southeastern United States, this book offers a comparative synthesis of Native–European contacts and their consequences in both regions. The chapters also engage at different scales of analysis, from locally based research to macro-level evaluations, using documentary, paleoclimatic, and regional archaeological data.

No other volume assembles such a wide variety of archaeological, ethnohistorical, environmental, and biological information to elucidate the experience of Natives and Europeans in the early colonial world of Northern New Spain, and the global implications of entradas during this formative period in borderlands history.

Published by: University of Arizona Press

Cover

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p. 1-1

Title Page, Copyright

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pp. 2-5

Contents

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pp. v-vii

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Editors’ Preface

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pp. ix-xii

This volume had its origins in the vanishing twilight of a weekend in the fall of 2007 spent mapping sixteenth-century artifacts in the urban core of Albuquerque, New Mexico. With the light fading, and the only source of illumination for the pin flags at his feet being the dim light of...

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1. Entradas in Context: Sixteenth-Century Indigenous and Imperial Trajectories in the American South

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pp. 1-27

Less than twenty years after the siege of Tenochtitlán and the fall of the Mexica Empire in 1521, a wide range of Spanish-led entradas began probing forward into the unexplored northern frontier of New Spain and La Florida. These events mark some of the most salient historical...

Section I. Native Perspectives

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pp. 29-45

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2. Crossing the Corn Line: Steps toward an Understanding of Zuni Communities and Entradas in the Sixteenth-Century Southwest

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pp. 31-44

From prehistory to the present day, the Zuni region of west-central New Mexico has continued to occupy a place of special significance for Pueblo communities and others. For centuries before the first Spanish-led entradas began to arrive in the area, Ancestral Zuni Pueblos were located in fertile river valleys west of the Continental Divide and along the Zuni-Acoma ...

Section II. Historiography

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pp. 45-61

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3. Catch as Catch Can: The Evolving History of the Contact Period Southwest, 1838–Present

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pp. 47-62

For much of its course, study of the Contact Period of the American Southwest and northwest Mexico has been frozen in concepts and paradigms long ago superseded by scholars in other fields. Centuries-old historical frameworks have survived in strictly narrative,...

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4. Contact Era Studies and the Southeastern Indians

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pp. 63-77

In the past twenty years a profound change has occurred in the study of the Native peoples of the American South—the bridging of prehistory and history. This important breakthrough now allows scholars a way of fashioning a seamless social history from the earliest...

Section III. Climatic Influences and Impacts

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pp. 79-95

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5. The Role of Climate in Early Spanish–Native AmericanInteractions in the US Southwest

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pp. 81-98

Archaeologists describe and reconstruct past environments for two reasons. First, we describe the physical setting, climate, and environmental resources of a particular area and time period because they convey a mental image to our readers and form the background for...

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6. The Factors of Climate and Weather in Sixteenth-Century La Florida

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pp. 99-120

While the Southeastern United States does not share the reputation of the arid Southwest as a place of climatic extremes, recent experience in the region reminds us that historical averages do not imply a steady state. Severe drought in the last few years has sorely tested...

Section IV. Disease

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pp. 121-137

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7. Regarding Sixteenth-Century Native Population Change in the Northern Southwest

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pp. 123-139

Historical and archaeological analyses across the North American Southeast have repeatedly shown significant sixteenth-century decline of Native populations, primarily from introduced infectious diseases, but assisted by warfare, exploitation, and nutritional...

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8. Entradas and Epidemics in the Sixteenth-Century Southeast

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pp. 140-151

The transformation of the New World that resulted from European exploration and colonization is undeniable. Native populations were subjected to forced labor, substantial migration, dramatic social change, and population declines. Thought once to have occurred...

Section V. Political Organization

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pp. 153-169

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9. Sixteenth-Century Indigenous Settlement Dynamics in the Upper Middle Rio Grande Valley

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pp. 155-169

The earliest entrada-related activities in the desert Southwest were undertaken by Esteban the Moor, Fray Marcos de Niza, and Melchoir Díaz/Juan de Zaldívar—who reached areas of present-day New Mexico and Arizona in 1539. The later and far...

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10. The Interior South at the Time of Spanish Exploration

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pp. 170-188

As the only early sixteenth-century Spanish expedition to travel extensively through the Southeast, the 1539–1543 entrada of Hernando de Soto made contact with more Native American polities than any other expedition in the region.1 The expedition entered...

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11. Inventing Florida: Constructing a Colonial Society in an Indigenous Landscape

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pp. 189-201

Beginning with the 1513 discovery of Florida, Spanish explorers and colonists embarked on a lengthy process to incorporate the American Southeast into the expanding Spanish colonial empire. Despite multiple false starts over the course of the next half-century...

Section VI. Conflict

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pp. 203-219

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12. Contest and Violence on the Northern Borderlands Frontier: Patterns of Native–European Conflict in the Sixteenth-Century Southwest

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pp. 205-230

From the early decades of the sixteenth century, the shifting northern frontier of New Spain became a theater for both exploration and conflict, as Spanish-led expeditions advanced tentatively into new, unknown territories (Altman 2010; Chipman 1967; Gerhard 1982...

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13. Conflict, Violence, and Warfare in La Florida

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pp. 231-247

Native people and Spanish expeditions experienced several kinds of conflict in La Florida during the sixteenth century, some of which had roots in the prehistoric past, and some of which were new. Warfare in the Mississippian Southeast emphasized status relations within...

Section VII. Discussion

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pp. 249-265

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14. Honor and Hierarchies: Long-Term Trajectories in the Pueblo and Mississippian Worlds

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pp. 251-273

The symposium from which this book emerged took place at a most opportune time. The papers there provide fresh insights into the nature of Spanish entradas across the American Southeast and Southwest. But more than that, this conversation took place shortly...

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15. History, Prehistory, and the Contact Experience

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pp. 274-283

The Contact Period, or when different cultures meet and interact, is arguably one of the most interesting to anthropologically oriented archaeologists. Is the encounter hostile or conciliatory? Does one culture change or are both affected? If they change...

Appendix A: Annual Values and Equivalent Z-Scores for the MRG Basin and San Francisco Peaks Chronologies

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pp. 285-294

Notes

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pp. 295-304

References Cited

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pp. 305-365

About the Contributors

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pp. 367-373

Index

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pp. 375-382


E-ISBN-13: 9780816599851
E-ISBN-10: 0816599858
Print-ISBN-13: 9780816530205
Print-ISBN-10: 0816530203

Page Count: 398
Illustrations: 1 photo, 25 illust.
Publication Year: 2013

Series Title: Amerind Studies in Anthropology
Series Editor Byline: John Smith, Will Wordsworth

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Subject Headings

  • Indians of North America -- Southwest, New -- History -- 16th century.
  • Indians of North America -- Southern States -- History -- 16th century.
  • Indians of North America -- First contact with Europeans -- Southwest, New.
  • Indians of North America -- First contact with Europeans -- Southern States.
  • Southwest, New -- Discovery and exploration -- Spanish.
  • Southern States -- Discovery and exploration -- Spanish.
  • Spain -- Colonies -- America.
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