Seeds of Resistance, Seeds of Hope
Place and Agency in the Conservation of Biodiversity
Publication Year: 2013
This broad collection brings to the table a bag full of tools from anthropology, sociology, genetics, plant breeding, education, advocacy, and social activism. By design, multiple voices are included. They cross or straddle disciplinary, generational, national, and political borders. Contributors demonstrate the importance of cultural memory in the persistence of traditional or heirloom crops, as well as the agency exhibited by displaced and persecuted peoples in place-making and reconstructing nostalgic landscapes (including gardens from their homelands). Contributions explore local initiatives to save native and older seeds, the use of modern technologies to conserve heirloom plants, the bioconservation efforts of indigenous people, and how genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been successfully combated. Together they explore the conservation of biodiversity at different scales, from different perspectives, and with different theoretical and methodological approaches. Collectively, they demonstrate that there is reason for hope.
Published by: University of Arizona Press
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Title Page, Copyright, Dedication
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Preface - Virginia D. Nazarea
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Four words that are not normally used, or not used often enough, in rela-tion to the conservation of plant ge ne tic resources in par tic u lar and bio-diversity in general are “re sis tance,” “hope,” “place,” and “agency.” Why focus on these instead of, say, sustainability, rationality, economic value, Conservation is all too commonly viewed as something that requires ...
Conservation beyond Design: An Introduction - Virginia D. Nazarea and Robert E. Rhoades
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We cannot begin to talk about the conservation of biological diversity without fi rst taking account of legacies, traces, and tidemarks, for con-servation rarely begins with an external program or a streamlined de-sign. On the contrary, it begins with ge ne tic and cultural heritages in different degrees of vitality and disrepair, interconnected reservoirs of ...
I. Marginality and Memory in Place-Based Conservation
1. Temptation to Hope: From the “Idea” to the Milieu of Biodiversity - Virginia D. Nazarea
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Portrayed as at once a crisis and a cure, biodiversity captured public imagination and became a rallying point in the 1990s. Ever since the publication of E. O. Wilson’s landmark volumes Biodiversity (1988) and Biodiversity II (Reaka- Kudla et al. 1997), biological and social scientists have been analyzing causes and trends and fashioning solutions. Con-...
2. Apples of Their Eyes: Memory Keepers of the American South - Susannah Chapman and Tom Brown
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A number of studies have revealed the ways that history, meaning, and memory are often embedded in the landscape and in par tic u lar places (Schama 1995; Feld and Basso 1996; Cruikshank 2005). A signifi cant body of research demonstrates that long- lived trees often acquire cultural meaning beyond their immediate material uses (Dove 1998), while cul-...
3. Food from the Ancestors: Documentation, Conservation, and Revival of Eastern Cherokee Heirloom Plants - James R. Veteto and Kevin Welch
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Southern Appalachia is one of the most biodiverse temperate forest regions in the world (Braun 2001; Cozzo 2004) and has been widely studied by botanists and ecologists (e.g., Martin et al. 1993; Pittillo et al. 1998). A lesser known and studied phenomena is that southern Appalachia has one of the highest currently known levels of agricultural biodiversity in ...
4. Sense of Place and Indigenous People’s Biodiversity Conservation in the Americas - Tirso Gonzales
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Place for indigenous peoples is where language, culture, daily life, spiri-tual ceremonies, and rituals nest and dynamically interact. Not all indig-enous peoples are agriculturalists; however, for most of them, life revolves around agriculture. This is the case for Andean indigenous peoples of Colombia, Ec ua dor, Peru, and Bolivia. Its total population is around 17 ...
5. Saving Our Seeds: An Indigenous Perspective from Cotacachi, Ecuador - Magdalena Fueres, Rodrigo Flores, and Rosita Ramos
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As members of the indigenous communities of Cotacachi, Ec ua dor, we would like to describe our experiences over the past few years with the recovery of our native plants. Through various initiatives imple-mented by foreign friends and Ec ua dor ian compatriots, our indigenous organizations— UNORCAC (Unión de Organizaciones de Campesinas y ...
6. People, Place, and Plants in the Pacific Coast of Colombia - Juana Camacho
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Across time and space women have played important roles in plant man-agement and in situ conservation. In the past years there has been in-creasing recognition of the signifi cance of women’s agricultural practices, particularly in homegardens (Oakley and Momsen 2007; Aguilar- Stoen, Moe, and Camargo- Ricalde 2009). Women’s gendered environmental ...
II. Agency and Reterritorialization in the Context of Globalization
7. Maya Mother Seeds in Resistance of Highland Chiapas in Defense of Native Corn - Peter Brown
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With careful examination of the tiny test strip, everyone present con-vinced themselves that a pink line indicating contamination by ge ne tically engineered corn was missing. As this individual corn leaf tested free of contamination from ge ne tically modifi ed organisms (GMOs), a palpable sigh of relief seemed to fi ll the room and fl ow through the crowd of tense ...
8. Preserving Soybean Diversity in Japan - Richard Moore
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Among industrialized countries, Japan has one of the lowest levels of food security. Although self- suffi cient in rice, overall the country only produces 28 percent of its grain needs and a mere 5 percent of food and feed soybean requirements (MAFF 2005; Norin Tokei Kyokai 2003). Despite this reality, the Japa nese people are strongly opposing and actively resisting the impor-...
9. Complementarity and Conflict: In Situ and Ex Situ Approaches to Conserving Plant Genetic Resources - Cary Fowler
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Plant ge ne tic resources, the biological foundation of the crops that feed humanity, are a living library of life. Like library books, some are con-served ex situ in genebanks, where they can be accessed and used for research and breeding. But not all these “books” have been collected and placed in genebanks— indeed, some have not yet been written. Profes-...
10. Situated Meanings of Key Concepts in the Regulation of Plant Genetic Resources - Kristine Skarbø
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The stakes in the realm of agricultural biodiversity are high: rural live-lihoods around the planet, income and incentives in agricultural indus-tries, and the very foundation for future food supply. Biodiversity connects actors in all corners of the world with common and competing interests into networks of transfer and exchange (Escobar 1998). The ...
11. Exile Landscapes of Nostalgia and Hope in the Cuban Diaspora - Jenna E. Andrews-Swann
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Immigrants are defi ned by their mobility. They are always and forever dis-tinguishable from those born in the host country. On a day- to- day basis they negotiate ways around experiences and memories of homeland and Mariastella Pulvirenti, “Anchoring Mobile Subjectivities: Home, The history of Cuban migration to the United States is a perplexing, ...
12. When Seeds Are Scarce: Globalization and the Response of Three Cultures - Robert E. Rhoades
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With seeds understandably being crucial to survival and identity, farm-ing and gardening societies always maintain a strong cultural and agro-nomic link between their planting material and the rest of their food system. Survival depends on the ability of the farm house hold to care-fully select the appropriate material from which the next harvest will ...
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Page Count: 312
Illustrations: 21 photos, 11 illust, 18 tables, 2 other
Publication Year: 2013