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Global Warming

Looking Beyond Kyoto

edited by Ernesto Zedillo

Publication Year: 2008

The latest report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reflects the growing international consensus that the earth's climate is being changed by anthropogenic greenhouse gasses. Evidence presented by the IPCC and others points to the potential for increasingly dangerous weather, new disease outbreaks, regional water shortages, the loss of habitat and species, and other disturbing developments that could have profound social and economic impacts. Opinions on what should be done, however, remain sharply divided within and among countries. Though monumental in its efforts, the Kyoto Protocol has left much to be agreed upon and achieved, with the world's largest emitter of carbon dioxide —the United States —rejecting it. In G lobal Warming: Looking Beyond Kyoto , some of the best-known and respected authorities in climate policy provide a comprehensive agenda for global collective action. Representing both industrialized and developing nations, the contributors present a thought-provoking examination of the economic, social, and political context of climate policy within their countries. With Kyoto's emissions targets set to expire in 2012, these authors call for a multilateral approach that goes beyond the mitigation-focused Kyoto policies, balancing them with strategies for adaptation. They also stress the importance of generating policies that work within a time frame commensurate with that of climate change itself. Informed, insightful, and even-handed, this book gives a new impetus to the increasingly important global climate policy debate. Contributors include R.K. Pachauri (Energy Resources Institute and the IPCC), Richard S. Lindzen (Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Stefan Rahmstorf (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research), Stephen H. Schneider and Thomas Heller (Stanford University), Robert Mendelsohn and William D. Nordhaus (Yale University), Gernot Klepper and Sonja Peterson (Kiel Institute for World Economics), Robert N. Stavins (Harvard University), Alexander Golub (Environmental Defense), Howard Dalton (U.K. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs), John Stone (Carleton University, Ottawa), Jyoti Parikh (Integrated Research and Action for Development), and Shen Longhai (China Energy Conservation Association)

Published by: Brookings Institution Press

Front Cover

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Front Matter

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Table of Contents

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pp. v-vii

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Introduction

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pp. 1-10

The pace and face of globalization in the twentieth-first century will be critically influenced by whether or not some specific issues that call for collective action by countries are properly addressed. The evolution of globalization and its capacity to facilitate convergence of standards of living among all countries ...

Part I: Climate Change Detection and Scenarios: Reexamining the Evidence

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pp. 11-

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1. The IPCC: Establishing the Evidence

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pp. 13-20

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program. Reexamination of the evidence on climate change is the basic purpose of the IPCC.1 The thorough, consensual, and objective manner in which these assessments ...

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2. Is the Global Warming Alarm Founded on Fact?

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pp. 21-33

For the sensitive reader or listener, the language used in connection with the issue of “global warming” must frequently sound strange. Weather and climate catastrophes of all sorts are claimed to be the inevitable result of global warming, and global warming is uniquely associated with man’s activities. ...

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3. Anthropogenic Climate Change: Revisiting the Facts

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pp. 34-54

The idea that humans can change and are in fact changing the climate of our planet has developed gradually over more than a hundred years. A fringe idea in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries,1 it is close to a well established scientific consensus at the turn of the twenty-first century.2 ...

Part II: Measuring our Vulnerabilites to Climate Change

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pp. 55-

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4. “Dangerous” Climate Change: Key Vulnerabilities

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pp. 57-81

Assessing key vulnerabilities and their relationship with “dangerous” climate change begins with a conceptual overview, followed by a discussion of the major components and the methods that scientists and other analysts use to address uncertainties in any attempt to define what constitutes “dangerous climate change.” ...

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5. The Policy Implications of Climate Change Impacts

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pp. 82-88

Recent research on the impacts of global warming has revealed that the net impacts of climate change are much smaller than first thought. Near-term damage will largely be offset by near-term benefits. Damages are expected to exceed benefits only in the second half of this century and only in scenarios with rapid climate change. ...

Part III: The Kyoto Protocol: Consequences and Opportunities for Transformation

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pp. 89-

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6. Economic Analyses of the Kyoto Protocol: Is There Life after Kyoto?

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pp. 91-100

This paper reviews different approaches to the political and economic control of global public goods like global warming. It compares quantity-oriented control mechanisms like the Kyoto Protocol with price-type control mechanisms such as internationally harmonized carbon taxes. ...

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7. The European Emissions Trading Regime and the Future of Kyoto

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pp. 101-112

When in the spring of 2005 the Kyoto Protocol finally entered into force, it established the first multilateral cap on emissions of greenhouse gases and coincided—more or less by accident due to a few delays—with the start of the European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) for carbon dioxide (CO2), ...

Part IV: Alternative Climate Policy Options

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pp. 113-

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8. Climate Change: Designing an Effective Response

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pp. 115-144

The future of the Kyoto Protocol is, at very best, problematic. The most realistic appraisal of negotiations that might extend and deepen a climate change regime built upon the architecture of the protocol is that they will meet a dead end. Put more diplomatically, there remains little chance that a regime so structured ...

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9. An International Policy Architecture for the Post-Kyoto Era

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pp. 145-154

After seven years of uncertainty, the Kyoto Protocol (1997) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) came into force in February 2005 but without participation by the United States. With Russian ratification late in 2004, requirements for implementation were met, ...

Part V: Climate Policy in the Industrialized Countries

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pp. 155-

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10. Controversies of Russian Climate Policy and Opportunities for Greenhouse Gas Reduction

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pp. 157-174

Russia is an important player in the international effort to address climate change. Its share in global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions declined from about 11 percent in 1990 to about 6.4 percent in 2003.1 Despite the sharp decline, Russia remains among the world’s largest polluters, ranking third in the world ...

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11. Climate Policy in the United Kingdom

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pp. 175-192

The United Kingdom has been at the forefront in the response to climate change. For two decades it has regarded climate change as a critical issue facing humankind, one with the potential for profoundly affecting the global environment, its flora and fauna, and global society. ...

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12. Canada’s Approach to Tackling Climate Change

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pp. 193-202

In this short chapter I attempt to bring together the thinking of the Canadian federal government of the time on tackling the climate change issue. It is based on publicly available material. I am not representing the government of Canada, and so I include some of my own observations and interpretations. ...

Part VI: Linking Climate Change Control and Development Policies

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pp. 203-

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13. India and Climate Change: Mitigation, Adaptation, and a Way Forward

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pp. 205-214

The problem of climate change poses challenging issues to almost all countries, and India is no exception. Along with global problems like ocean pollution and species extinction, and local problems such as pollution of air and water as well as the degradation of soil and forests, the problem of climate change has to be addressed ...

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14. Correct Choices for China: Energy Conservation, a Cyclic Economy, and a Conservation-Minded Society

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pp. 215-224

The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) took effect in February 2005, marking a substantial step toward reducing global greenhouse gases. It was the result of joint efforts made by many countries during the ten years after the UN treaty went into force in March 1994. ...

Contributors

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pp. 225-230

Index

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pp. 231-237


E-ISBN-13: 9780815797166
E-ISBN-10: 0815797168

Page Count: 237
Publication Year: 2008