Shaping the Emerging World
India and the Multilateral Order
Publication Year: 2013
India faces a defining period. Its status as a global power is not only recognized but increasingly institutionalized, even as geopolitical shifts create both opportunities and challenges. With critical interests in almost every multilateral regime and vital stakes in emerging ones, India has no choice but to influence the evolving multilateral order. If India seeks to affect the multilateral order, how will it do so? In the past, it had little choice but to be content with rule taking—adhering to existing international norms and institutions. Will it now focus on rule breaking—challenging the present order primarily for effect and seeking greater accommodation in existing institutions? Or will it focus on rule shaping—contributing in partnership with others to shape emerging norms and regimes, particularly on energy, food, climate, oceans, and cyber security? And how do India's troubled neighborhood, complex domestic politics, and limited capacity inhibit its rule-shaping ability?
Despite limitations, India increasingly has the ideas, people, and tools to shape the global order—in the words of Jawaharlal Nehru, "not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially." Will India emerge as one of the shapers of the emerging international order? This volume seeks to answer that question.
Published by: Brookings Institution Press
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Title Page, Copyright Page
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Table of Contents
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The genesis of this edited volume was a workshop on Indian foreignpolicy organized by New York University’s Centre on International Coopera-tion (CIC) in October 2010. Generously funded by the International Devel-opment Research Centre (IDRC), the workshop in New York provided anopportunity to chalk out the contours of the present book and establish a part-...
Part I: Introduction
A Hesitant Rule Shaper?
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India faces a defining period. As the world’s biggest democracy with an econ-omy among the world’s ten largest, India’s status as a reemerging global poweris being not just recognized but increasingly institutionalized, with a seat onthe G-20, increasing clout in the international financial institutions, entryinto the club of nuclear-armed states, impending membership in the various...
Part II: Perspectives on Multilateralism
The Changing Dynamics of India's Multilateralism
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The evolution of India’s multilateralism remains one of the underexploreddomains of India’s foreign policy. This is surprising given the pressing natureof the multilateral agenda in recent years— international trade negotiations,nuclear nonproliferation, global warming, humanitarian intervention, and thepromotion of democracy— and India’s complex responses to it. As New Delhi...
India and Multilateralism: A Practitioner's Perspective
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While multilateralism is a broad concept, encompassing relations amongstates beyond the bilateral context, for the purposes of this chapter I confinemyself to India’s approach to the United Nations (UN) and its institutions andprocesses. In order to highlight how India has conducted itself in this specificmultilateral context, I draw on my experience as a professional diplomat, rep-...
India as a Regional Power
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Since independence and partition in 1947, India has largely been seen as aregional, more specifically subcontinental, power. India’s core interests and itscapacity to secure these have apparently been bounded by the geography andpolitics of South Asia. Over the past two decades, however, India’s economicreforms and opening up have unleashed unprecedented entrepreneurial...
Part III: Domestic and Regional Drivers
The Economic Imperative for India's Multilateralism
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India has been a strong advocate of multilateralism even when it has pre-ferred a bilateral approach to the political challenges it confronts in SouthAsia. India is not alone among major powers in adopting such a paradoxicalstance. However, the Indian view of multilateral institutions and of multilat-eralism has evolved over time, with the approach adopted in the political and...
What in the World Is India Able to Do? India's State Capacity for Multilateralism
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As India aspires to move from a rule-taker to a rule-maker or at least a rule-shaper role in the multilateral order, the main question being asked is, “Whatwill India do”? Perhaps an equally relevant question is, “What is India able todo?” This question is directly related to India’s state capacity, which this chap-ter defines as a state’s ability to develop and implement policy. ...
India's Regional Disputes
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From the 1970s onward, India has been regarded as being a difficult partnerin multilateral settings. The end of the cold war may, as various commenta-tors suggest, have effected a much greater degree of “pragmatism” in India’sexternal dealings, but Indians themselves, as well as foreign commentators,recognize that India’s attitude to multilateral negotiations and forums is...
From an Ocean of Peace to a Sea of Friends
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The analysis of geopolitical trends in the Indian Ocean has always constituteda uniquely challenging undertaking. For decades, strategic pundits have cycli-cally recognized the region’s growing importance, yet struggled to define bothits boundaries and its precise geopolitical significance. Part of the difficultylies, no doubt, in the very conceptualization of the region. Should the Indian...
Part IV: Multilateral Policy in Practice
Dilemmas of Sovereignty and Order: India and the UN Security Council
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This chapter examines India’s participation within and attitudes toward theUnited Nations Security Council (UNSC). In so doing, it confronts twoempirical puzzles. First, contrary to what one might expect of a rising power,India’s willingness to countenance violations of state sovereignty (through,say, multilaterally authorized intervention) as an international norm has...
India and UN Peacekeeping: The Weight of History and a Lack of Strategy
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India’s involvement in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations is oneof its most visible contributions to the multilateral system. More than 100,000Indian military and police personnel have served in forty of the UN’s sixty-five peacekeeping missions, dating back to their inception in the 1950s. As ofApril 2013, India had 6,851 troops and 1,038 police officers under UN com-...
From Defensive to Pragmatic Multilateralism and Back: India's Approach to Multilateral Arms Control and Disarmament
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In the early days of India’s independence, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, thearchitect of India’s foreign policy, hoped that India would guide the worldtoward a more cooperative order in which multilateral discussion and debatewould help to resolve international disputes. In a recent book, the historianManu Bhagavan goes so far as to suggest that Nehru placed his faith in an...
Security in Cyberspace: India's Multilateral Efforts
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Cyberspace, governed by mechanisms difficult to understand and capable ofimpossible-to-assess disruptions, has significantly raised the uncertainty in theinternational system. Coupled with the contemporary shifts in the interna-tional balance of power, this uncertainty has posed unexpected challenges forstates. On the one hand, governments are forced to develop a cooperative...
India and International Financial Institutions and Arrangements
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India’s engagement with international financial institutions (IFIs) and otherinstitutional arrangements governing global finance commenced even beforeindependence, when the country participated in the Bretton Woods confer-ence in 1944. Recently discovered transcripts of the Bretton Woods conferencereveal that even though India was still a colony, the Indian delegation, led by...
Of Maps and Compasses: India in Multilateral Climate Negotiations
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India has taken a remarkably consistent approach to global climate negotia-tions: a principled position on climate change founded on attention to equitydimensions of the problem. This stance, which is the setting on a metaphor-ical compass that has guided the last two decades of Indian climate policy, hasstrong implications for India’s arguments for the relative mitigation burdens...
India's Energy, Food, and Water Security: International Cooperation for Domestic Capacity
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In recent years, higher and more volatile energy and food prices have pushednatural resources toward the top of the international agenda, while waterscarcity is a growing threat to industry, agriculture, and energy generation.According to one estimate, by 2030 worldwide demand for food, water, andenergy will grow approximately 35, 40, and 50 percent, respectively. At the...
India and International Norms: R2P, Genocide Prevention, Human Rights, and Democracy
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The doctrine of responsibility to protect (R2P), India’s permanent represen-tative to the United Nations declared in a speech in October 2012, “is themost important challenge that the international community, anchored in theUnited Nations, is going to face.”1 Arguing that the initial suspicion of manydeveloping countries toward the newest norm in international relations was...
From Plurilateralism to Multilateralism? G-20, IBSA, BRICS, and BASIC
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What is India’s preferred multilateral global order, and how does New Delhiseek to establish it? While this remains a work in progress, several strands ofIndia’s preference are discernible. Since the end of the cold war and the begin-ning of India’s own economic reforms in the early 1990s, there has been astrategic shift from nonalignment to multialignment. This shift is premised on...
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Organization, Back Cover
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Page Count: 358
Publication Year: 2013