Influencing Armed Forces Worldwide to Support Democratic Transitions
Publication Year: 2013
The response of an autocratic nation's armed forces is crucial to the outcome of democratization movements throughout the world. But what exact internal conditions have led to real-world democratic transitions, and have external forces helped or hurt? Here, experts with military and policy backgrounds, some of whom have played a role in democratic transitions, present instructive case studies of democratic movements. Focusing on the specific domestic context and the many influences that have contributed to successful transitions, the authors write about democratic civil-military relations in fourteen countries and five world regions. The cases include Argentina, Chile, El Salvador, Egypt, Hungary, Indonesia, Lebanon, Nigeria, Philippines, Senegal, South Africa, Spain, Syria, and Thailand, augmented by regional overviews of Asia, Europe, Latin America, North Africa and the Middle East, and sub-Saharan Africa.
Contributors: Richard Akum (Council for the Development of Social Sciences in Africa), Ecoma Alaga (African Security Sector Network), Muthiah Alagappa (Institute of Security and International Studies, Malaysia), Suchit Bunbongkarn (Institute of Security and International Studies, Thailand), Juan Emilio Cheyre (Center for International Studies, Catholic University of Chile), Biram Diop (Partners for Democratic Change African Institute for Security Sector Transformation, Dakar), Raymundo B. Ferrer (Nickel Asia Corporation), Humberto Corado Figueroa (Ministry of Defense, El Salvador), Vilmos Hamikus (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Hungary), Julio Hang (Argentine Council for International Relations), Marton Harsanyi (Stockholm University), Carolina G. Hernandez (University of the Philippines; Institute for Strategic and Development Studies), Raymond Maalouf (Defense expert, Lebanon), Tannous Mouawad (Middle East Studies, Lebanon), Matthew Rhodes (George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies), Martin Rupiya (African Public Policy and Research Institute), Juan C. Salgado Brocal (Academic and Consultant Council for Military Research and Studies, Chile), Narcís Serra (Barcelona Institute of International Studies), Rizal Sukma (Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Jakarta).
Published by: Brookings Institution Press
Table of Contents
The second volume of Military Engagement relates the stories of how democratic civil-military relations developed in five world regions and fourteen individual countries. This introduction pro-describes the patterns observed and the lessons that can be drawn defense ministries of their countries and subsequent careers with ...
Characteristics of and Influences on the Armed Forces during Democratic Transition in Latin America
...tions throughout the nineteenth century delayed the establishment of normal, civilian-led institutions. The majority of Latin Ameri-or elite expectations of democracy until well into the twentieth military governments in most of the region?s countries. This chap-ter analyzes the transitions of those regimes to more representa-...
Argentina: A Transition without Conditions
Soldiers have played a very important role in Argentina over the past two centuries. Many national heroes were soldiers, as were against both democratically elected governments and military gov-ernments. This case study analyzes the last military government government after the transition. The case study cannot cover all ...
Chile: Transition toward the Subordination of the Military
The political transition in Chile from the military government to tional articles of the Political Constitution of 1980 and negotiated among the political actors, and it was carried out in a peaceful and institutionalized manner, without violence and in accordance with This case study describes the role of the Chilean armed forces, ...
From War to Peace in El Salvador: The Military Transition
...dez Martinez, minister of war, the navy and the air force, led the first military coup of the twentieth century in El Salvador. Almost immediately, in January 1932, it faced a rebellion of peasants in the western part of the country, which the military suppressed. Mili-ranging responsibilities for public order and national development. ...
Military and Democratic Development in Asia: A Complex Narrative
Monopoly over the legitimate use of force is a key feature of the modern state. As the primary wielder of state-sanctioned force, the tary forces, security services, and intelligence agencies?is a cru-cial state institution. Notwithstanding its importance, ambivalence and caution characterize public perception of the military. Such ...
The Military and Democratic Reform in Indonesia
...decades. The end of President Sukarno?s authoritarian rule, which started in 1957 and ended in 1966, did not lead to the restoration or PKI), further consolidated authoritarian rule and completely dominated Indonesia?s politics for more than three decades. Dur-ing both periods, the Indonesian military had been a central player ...
The Military in Democratic Development: A Philippine Case Study
...uneven process, and the security forces of the country and their and in setbacks. This chapter describes the course of that develop-ment, the role of the armed forces, and the importance of outside tary is not entirely alien in the Philippines. Before the arrival of teenth-century liberal democratic ideas, including supremacy of ...
The Armed Forces and Democratic Development in Thailand
Since 1932 the Thai military has been actively involved in poli-tics. This can be explained in terms of both political structure and political culture. Regarding the political structure, the representa-tive institutions such as the parliament and political parties were weak and unable to fulfill their key roles in the government. The ...
Sub-Saharan Africa: Decolonization to Multiparty Democracy and the Challenges of Transforming Military Institutions
Consensus,? the United States and international financial institu-tions insisted that governments implement reforms for representa-funds. Forty-two of the forty-seven sub-Saharan African states held The elections led to peaceful transitions of power in these states; however, in the other countries the fledgling democracies collapsed ...
Civil-Military Relations and Democratic Consolidation in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges
Military coups were frequent for more than three decades follow-ing Nigeria?s independence in 1960. The country experienced seven of failed coup attempts.1 Indeed, during this period, military rule norm rather than the exception. Years of military rule eroded the implementation of principles of democratic civilian control of the ...
Civil-Military Relations in Senegal
Since independence, civil-military relations in Senegal have been proficient and exemplary. The international community has often cited them as a model. The primary reasons for this success are thethis chapter focuses on the development activities that the Sen-have shaped the public?s perception of the military. It also high-...
South Africa: Transition of the Armed Forces from Apartheid to Multiparty Democracy
This chapter examines South Africa?s transition from an apartheid cratic state with a regional strategy for peacekeeping, carried out The transition was difficult at times, with some violent resistance, but was accomplished in a relatively short time with impressive results. Although there are unique aspects of South Africa?s transi-...
Democracy and Armed Forces in Europe and Eurasia
The more than fifty countries of Europe and Eurasia include many of the world?s most robust democracies, some of its most restric-tive authoritarian systems, and states still considered in political transition. They share the historical experience of conflict cul-established an East-West political divide, but some diversity in ...
The Role of Foreign Advisers in the Process of Hungarian Defense Reform
...tral countries) military presence in Hungary was limited to attach?s. Their role was twofold: to observe and to report all military activ-ity of Hungarian and Soviet troops in the country and to establish and maintain contacts with military personnel. Counterintelligence agencies attempting to control and thwart these attach?s were in a ...
The Military Transition: Democratic Reform of the Spanish Armed Forces
The Spanish transition from a dictatorship to a democratic state began after Francisco Franco`s death on November 20, 1975. King ernment, placing the country on the path to change. Su?rez initi-ated the Law for Political Reform, which created a parliamentary democracy by calling for free elections and developing the frame-...
The Middle East and North Africa
...region gained their independence from colonial rule as early as of the cold war, the armed forces of the newly independent coun-tries were shaped by their colonial heritage, by the ethnic and sors, either the United States and other NATO states or the Soviet a time, Lebanon. Autocratic regimes ruled the rest of the region, ...
Egypt: A Case Study
Ali, a high-ranking Ottoman officer of Albanian origin, by 1811 ruler of Egypt. He dispatched government employees and military officers to Europe to learn and train in industry, agriculture, mili-tary, administration, and other fields. Under his rule, Egypt devel-oped its first modern industrial and military factories. Military ...
Lebanon and Syria: A Case Study
Due to their crucial geostrategic location, long before they became twentieth-century nation-states, Lebanon and Syria have for cen-turies been militarily influenced by numerous regional and global powers, and they continue to be important in geopolitical events today. They share borders with Israel, which has peaceful relations ...
About the Authors
...etary Fund, the University of Peace, and the Council for the Devel-rity Sector Network (ASSN) and specializes in conflict prevention, resolution, peace building, and security with particular interest in gender issues, security, and justice sector reform and governance. national, regional, and national organizations, including for the ...
Page Count: 392
Publication Year: 2013