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Military Engagement

Influencing Armed Forces Worldwide to Support Democratic Transitions

edited by Dennis C. Blair

Publication Year: 2013

The response of an autocratic nation's armed forces is crucial to the outcome of democratization movements throughout the world. But what exact internal conditions have led to real-world democratic transitions, and have external forces helped or hurt? Here, experts with military and policy backgrounds, some of whom have played a role in democratic transitions, present instructive case studies of democratic movements. Focusing on the specific domestic context and the many influences that have contributed to successful transitions, the authors write about democratic civil-military relations in fourteen countries and five world regions. The cases include Argentina, Chile, El Salvador, Egypt, Hungary, Indonesia, Lebanon, Nigeria, Philippines, Senegal, South Africa, Spain, Syria, and Thailand, augmented by regional overviews of Asia, Europe, Latin America, North Africa and the Middle East, and sub-Saharan Africa.

Contributors: Richard Akum (Council for the Development of Social Sciences in Africa), Ecoma Alaga (African Security Sector Network), Muthiah Alagappa (Institute of Security and International Studies, Malaysia), Suchit Bunbongkarn (Institute of Security and International Studies, Thailand), Juan Emilio Cheyre (Center for International Studies, Catholic University of Chile), Biram Diop (Partners for Democratic Change —African Institute for Security Sector Transformation, Dakar), Raymundo B. Ferrer (Nickel Asia Corporation), Humberto Corado Figueroa (Ministry of Defense, El Salvador), Vilmos Hamikus (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Hungary), Julio Hang (Argentine Council for International Relations), Marton Harsanyi (Stockholm University), Carolina G. Hernandez (University of the Philippines; Institute for Strategic and Development Studies), Raymond Maalouf (Defense expert, Lebanon), Tannous Mouawad (Middle East Studies, Lebanon), Matthew Rhodes (George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies), Martin Rupiya (African Public Policy and Research Institute), Juan C. Salgado Brocal (Academic and Consultant Council for Military Research and Studies, Chile), Narcís Serra (Barcelona Institute of International Studies), Rizal Sukma (Centre for Strategic and International Studies, Jakarta).

Published by: Brookings Institution Press

Front Cover

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pp. 1-3

Title Page

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p. 4-4

Copyright Information

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p. 5-5

Table of Contents

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pp. v-vi

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1. Introduction

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pp. 1-10

The second volume of Military Engagement relates the stories of how democratic civil-military relations developed in five world regions and fourteen individual countries. This introduction provides some background on those who authored these stories and describes the patterns observed and the lessons that can be drawn from them. ...

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2. Characteristics of and Influences on the Armed Forces during Democratic Transition in Latin America

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pp. 11-47

In Latin America, military governments have been commonplace ever since independence. Wars of independence and armed revolutions throughout the nineteenth century delayed the establishment of normal, civilian-led institutions. The majority of Latin American countries were governed by authoritarian regimes offering immediate solutions to social needs, ...

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3. Argentina: A Transition without Conditions

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pp. 48-66

Soldiers have played a very important role in Argentina over the past two centuries. Many national heroes were soldiers, as were many of the country’s presidents, some elected and some not. Before 1930 there were eighteen democratically elected governments. ...

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4. Chile: Transition toward the Subordination of the Military

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pp. 67-81

The political transition in Chile from the military government to a democratic government took place over almost two decades, beginning in 1988. It was an arrangement based on the transitional articles of the Political Constitution of 1980 and negotiated among the political actors, and it was carried out in a peaceful and institutionalized manner, ...

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5. From War to Peace in El Salvador: The Military Transition

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pp. 82-92

In 1931 El Salvador’s economy had been severely damaged by the Great Depression, which hindered the government from working effectively. On December 2, General Maximiliano Hernández Martinez, minister of war, the navy and the air force, led the first military coup of the twentieth century in El Salvador. ...

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6. Military and Democratic Development in Asia: A Complex Narrative

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pp. 93-112

Monopoly over the legitimate use of force is a key feature of the modern state. As the primary wielder of state-sanctioned force, the military—defined broadly to include the armed forces, paramilitary forces, security services, and intelligence agencies—is a crucial state institution. ...

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7. The Military and Democratic Reform in Indonesia

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pp. 113-138

When Indonesia transitioned to democracy in May 1998, the country had been under authoritarian rule for more than four decades. The end of President Sukarno’s authoritarian rule, which started in 1957 and ended in 1966, did not lead to the restoration of democracy. ...

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8. The Military in Democratic Development: A Philippine Case Study

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pp. 139-164

The development of democracy in the Philippines has been an uneven process, and the security forces of the country and their leaders have played a major part in both advances in democracy and in setbacks. This chapter describes the course of that development, the role of the armed forces, and the importance of outside influences. ...

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9. The Armed Forces and Democratic Development in Thailand

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pp. 165-187

Since 1932 the Thai military has been actively involved in politics. This can be explained in terms of both political structure and political culture. Regarding the political structure, the representative institutions such as the parliament and political parties were weak and unable to fulfill their key roles in the government. ...

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10. Sub-Saharan Africa: Decolonization to Multiparty Democracy and the Challenges of Transforming Military Institutions

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pp. 188-214

Between 1989 and 1999, with the ascendance of the “Washington Consensus,” the United States and international financial institutions insisted that governments implement reforms for representative government and free-market economies in order to receive funds. Forty-two of the forty-seven sub-Saharan African states held elections. ...

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11. Civil-Military Relations and Democratic Consolidation in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges

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pp. 215-235

Military coups were frequent for more than three decades following Nigeria’s independence in 1960. The country experienced seven military coups and countercoups during that period—in 1966, 1975, 1976 (two), 1983, 1985, and 1993—as well as a number of failed coup attempts.1 ...

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12. Civil-Military Relations in Senegal

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pp. 236-256

In addition to examining in detail the aforementioned reasons, this chapter focuses on the development activities that the Senegalese armed forces have undertaken and analyzes how these have shaped the public’s perception of the military. It also highlights some possible challenges that this exemplary civil-military relationship could face in the near and medium term. ...

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13. South Africa: Transition of the Armed Forces from Apartheid to Multiparty Democracy

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pp. 257-273

This chapter examines South Africa’s transition from an apartheid state pursuing an aggressive Total Strategy, implemented by an almost all-white South African Defense Force (SADF), to a democratic state with a regional strategy for peacekeeping, carried out by an integrated South African National Defense Force (SANDF). ...

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14. Democracy and Armed Forces in Europe and Eurasia

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pp. 274-299

The more than fifty countries of Europe and Eurasia include many of the world’s most robust democracies, some of its most restrictive authoritarian systems, and states still considered in political transition. They share the historical experience of conflict culminating in the two world wars. ...

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15. The Role of Foreign Advisers in the Process of Hungarian Defense Reform

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pp. 300-310

In the period between 1956 and 1988 the Western (NATO and neutral countries) military presence in Hungary was limited to attachés. Their role was twofold: to observe and to report all military activity of Hungarian and Soviet troops in the country and to establish and maintain contacts with military personnel. ...

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16. The Military Transition: Democratic Reform of the Spanish Armed Forces

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pp. 311-324

The Spanish transition from a dictatorship to a democratic state began after Francisco Franco`s death on November 20, 1975. King Juan Carlos I named Adolfo Suárez as the head of the first government, placing the country on the path to change. Suárez initiated the Law for Political Reform, which created a parliamentary democracy by calling for free elections ...

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17. The Middle East and North Africa

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pp. 325-350

The countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region gained their independence from colonial rule as early as 1920 (Turkey) and as late as 1961 (Kuwait). Through the period of the cold war, the armed forces of the newly independent countries were shaped by their colonial heritage, by the ethnic and tribal nature of their populations, ...

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18. Egypt: A Case Study

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pp. 351-362

Egypt became a province of the Ottoman Empire when the Ottoman Turks occupied it in 1517. In 1798 Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt and then, in 1801, withdrew. The Ottomans immediately reoccupied Egypt, heralding the early modern period of Egyptian history. ...

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19. Lebanon and Syria: A Case Study

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pp. 363-374

Due to their crucial geostrategic location, long before they became twentieth-century nation-states, Lebanon and Syria have for centuries been militarily influenced by numerous regional and global powers, and they continue to be important in geopolitical events today. ...

About the Authors

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pp. 375-378


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pp. 379-392

Back Cover

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p. 400-400

E-ISBN-13: 9780815724803
E-ISBN-10: 0815724802
Print-ISBN-13: 9780815724780

Page Count: 392
Publication Year: 2013